您的位置:小马过河 > GRE频道页 > GMAT > GMAT阅读机经 亚当斯密国富论

GMAT阅读机经 亚当斯密国富论

2014-07-25 16:35 小马过河 admin




  说business relationship按照他的说法 主要是建立在 exchange和bart上,人们都是以个人利益为主。

  但是 第二段 转折说 language其实在business relationship 中叶发挥了很大的作用并且举了一个例子

  【v2】我突然想起一个阅读,亚当斯密,第一段说的是亚当斯密认为人们的行为源于self interest, 然后举了几个例子,第二段反驳观点,说这个理论在有一种情况下不适用,有关language的方面,人们在这种情况下更依靠credit,而不是self interest。

  By harry

  考古: (harry说第二段不同 第一段相同)

  第三十七篇: Adam Smith国富论,两段论



  P2:however,人们忽视了那个时期对诚实,信用等的各种语言描述。支持商业关系不是自私的 blabla~


  講亞當斯密在國富論裏面提到"truck, barter, exchange",說他這個流派的理論說人性自私什麼的,blablablah,造成了大家的觀點是在18世紀的英國,自私自利的風氣如何損害了community的利益。

  第二段反駁,說當時並不是這樣的。當時的交易基於credit, trust啦什麼什麼的,大意就是這些交易非但沒有損害community的利益,反而使他們之間bond的更緊密。

  亞當斯密一題問引用barter truck and exchange的目的是什麼(目的应该是表明商业关系中人与人之间是为一己之私)?第一段,barter truck and exchange 是引號內的內容,不記得是前一句還是後一句能找到答案了


  P1:第一段 亚当史密斯觉得商业交易是出自于 self-interest 第二行出现了”truck, barter, exchange” 有题考这是什么作用

  P2:第二段是 作者推翻亚当史密斯的看法不对 因为英国16世纪是用credit交易之类的


  亞當斯密一題問引用barter truck and exchange的目的是什麼(目的应该是表明商业关系中人与人之间是为一己之私)


  Adam Smith国富论


  Adam Smith在《國富論》裏面提到"truck, barter, exchange",他這個流派的理論說人性是自私……的。Adam Smith这个关于人性自私的理论影响了大家的观点,认为在18世紀的英國,自私自利(self-interest)的風氣損害了community的利益。

  然而作者认为不是这样的,其实是那些人没有考虑adam smith提出这个理论的背景,当时的英国农村是很强调诚信和人格,當時的交易基於credit, trust。而经济的进步反而促使了community意识的形成。


  問引用barter truck and exchange的目的。表明商业关系中人与人之间是为一己之私。



  In the Wealth of Nations (1776), Scottish economist Adam Smith asserted that the propensity to “truck, barter and exchange” was both the foundation of commerce and a given quality of human nature, driven by individual desire. Smith’s view that self-interest dominated the business relations that emerged in early modern (sixteenth- and seventeenth- century) England has had tremendous effect on how such relations have been perceived Today it is typically assumed, for instance, that the development of business relations weakened the spirit of cooperation that characterized village communityies and encouraged a spirit of individualism and self-betterment that ran counter to community interest.

  However, such a view fails to account for the language that people in early modern England used to articulate their understanding of business relations, language that stressed credit, trust, obligation, and contracts, rather than self-interest. Throughout this period, most business transactions were conducted on credit, and the moral code of credit --- of plain dealing and of the keeping of promises---dominated the way in which business relations were conceived. Individual profit and solvency were important, but neither could be achieved without the trust and direct cooperation of one’s neighbors. As a result, buying and selling, far from breaking up communities, actually created numerous bonds that held villages together.

  d (1) The passage is primarily concerned with which of the following?

  A. Criticizing a theory of human nature

  B. Evaluating the impact of a particular economist on modern theories of economic history

  C. Chronicling the early history of the use of credit in business transactions

  D. Reconsidering accepted ideas about the history of business relations

  E. Explaining the decline of cooperation in village communities

  e (2) It can be inferred that the author of the passage believes that economic historians whose views have been influenced by Adam Smith have failed to examine which of the following?

  A. The power of business relations to shape moral values and beliefs

  B. The significance of human nature in shaping economic developments and social structure

  C. The importance of village communities in determining the economic well-being of a larger society

  D. The consequences for individual communities of changes in a country’s economic structure

  E. The actual language used by people in village communities to refer to their business dealings

  c (3) The author of the passage refers to “truck, barter and exchange” in the highlighted text most likely in order to

  A. lend authority to the argument that commerce is characterized by self-interest

  B. identify activities that embody essential qualities of human relationships

  C. indicate the terms Adam Smith used to define business relations

  D. represent the everyday speech used in village communities in England

  E. introduce key terms used in credit transactions in early modern England



GMAT阅读机经 法国大革命

GMAT阅读机经 亚当斯密国富论


相关字搜索:GMAT阅读机经   GMAT阅读   GMAT   

Copyright ©2004-2018 www.xiaoma.com All Rights Resserved 小马过河版权所有

课程咨询电话:400-920-8185 邮箱:tech@sanlischool.com


关于我们 网站地图


京公网安备 11010802021370号