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2018年12月2日GRE阅读机经预测

2018-11-28 16:19 小马过河 admin

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摘要:Although social learning (the acquisition of specific behaviors by observing other individuals exhibiting those behaviors ) is well documented among fish, few studies have investigated

文章 1

Although social learning (the acquisition of specific behaviors by observing other individuals exhibiting those behaviors ) is well documented among fish, few studies have investigated social learning within a developmental context in these taxa. Rather than investigating the development of a particular skill, Chapman, Ward, and Krause investigated the role of group density during development in later foraging success in laboratory-housed guppies. When raised with a small number of conspecifics (members of the same species), guppies were quicker to locate food by following a trained adult guppy than were guppies raised in large groups. This counterintuitive finding is explained by the fact that guppies reared in the high-density condition were less likely to shoal (swim in a group ) with others and, therefore, were less likely to learn the benefits of social learning. Instead, fish reared in high-density situations may learn that conspecifics are to be viewed as competitors, rather than as potential sources of adaptive information. This finding suggests that at least for guppies, the early social environment may have an effect on the capacity for social learning, if not on the socially learned behaviors themselves.
题目

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. note a flaw in a scientific finding

B. describe a particular scientific study

C. present an interpretation of a finding

D. note a difference between two scientific findings

E. contrast two conditions in which a particular phenomenon has been observed

2. Regarding research on fish, it can be inferred from the passage that

A. research studies of the acquisition of important skills by fish have only recently begun to document the role of conspecifics in the learning process

B. research on social learning in guppies suggests that guppies differ in important ways from most other fish in the means by which they learn particular skills

C. research on social learning in fish has generally focused on the acquisition of skills other than foraging

D. research has established that social learning occurs in some fish species without investigating the development context in which it occurs.

E. research to investigate social learning has been done more extensively on fish than on other aquatic animals.

3. Which of the following can be inferred about the study by Chapman, Ward, and Krause?

A. It was initially designed to investigate something other than social learning.

B. It required researchers to observe individual guppies at multiple points in their life spans.

C. It pointed to the possibility that population density may have little to do with guppies’ social learning.

D. It required the observation of guppies under conditions that closely mimicked the conditions of guppies in the wild.

E. It indicated that guppies gain adaptive information from being reared with a relatively large number of conspecifics.

答案
1.B    2.D   3.D

文章 2

A decrease in face-to-face social contact can precipitate depression. Time spent using the Internet cannot be spent in face-to-face social contact, so psychologists have speculated that sharply increasing Internet use can cause depression. Studies of regular Internet users have found a significantly higher incidence of depression among those who had recently doubled the amount of time they spent using the Internet than among those whose use had not increased. Hence, the psychologists’ speculation is correct.
题目

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. In general, the reason that the people in the studies had doubled their Internet use was not that they had earlier experienced a significant decrease in opportunities for face-to-face social contact.

B. A sharp decrease in face-to-face social contact is the only change in daily activity that can lead to an increased incidence of depression.

C. Using the Internet presents no opportunities for people to increase the amount of face-toface social contact they experienced in their daily lives.

D. Regular Internet users who are depressed will experience an immediate improvement in mood if they sharply decrease the amount of time they spend on the Internet.

E. Before they doubled the time they spent on the Internet, the people who did so were already more prone to depression than are regular Internet users in general.

答案
C

文章 3

As it was published in 1935, Mules and Men, Zora Neale Hurston's landmark collection of folktales, may not have been the book that its author first had in mind. In this anthropological study, Hurston describes in detail the people who tell the stories, often even inserting herself into the storytelling scene. Evidently, however, Hurston had prepared another version, a manuscript that was recently discovered and published after having been forgotten since 1929. This version differs from Mules and Men in that it simply records stories, with no descriptive or interpretive information.

While we cannot know for certain why Hurston’s original manuscript went unpublished during her lifetime, it may have been because publishers wanted something more than a transcription of tales. Contemporary novelist and critic John Edgar Wideman has described Black literature as the history of a writing that sought to escape its frame, in other words, as the effort of Black writers to present the stories of Black people without having to have a mediating voice to explain the stories to a non-Black audience. In this, Hurston may have been ahead of her time.

题目

1. Select the sentence that suggests a possible reason why Hurston wrote the version of Mules and Men that was published in 1935.

2. The passage suggests that Hurston may have done which of the following in preparing her original version?

A. Discussed her mode of presentation with her publisher before writing the first draft, in order to reduce the possibility of misunderstanding.

B. Shortened her presentation of the stories to the bare minimum in order to be able to present more folklore material.

C. Put it aside for several decades in order to maximize its potential audience when it was published.

D. Reluctantly agreed to reshape it in order to take out various elements with which her publisher had been dissatisfied.

E. Chose not to include editorial commentary, in order to present the stories on their own terms.

答案
1. While we cannot know for certain why Hurston’s original manuscript went unpublished during her lifetime, it may have been because publishers wanted something more than a transcription of tales.  2.E

文章 4

Although many hypotheses have been proposed to explain why some plant communities are more susceptible than others to invasion by nonnative species, results from field studies have been inconsistent and no general theory of invasibility has yet emerged. However, a theory based on fluctuating resource availability could integrate most existing hypotheses and successfully resolve many of the apparently conflicting and ambiguous results of previous studies. The suggested theory is that a plant community becomes more susceptible to invasion whenever there is an increase in the amount of unused resources. The diversity in the range of resource-release mechanisms could partly explain the absence of consistent ecological correlates of invasibility. In particular, the theory predicts that there will be no necessary relationship between the species diversity of a plant community and its susceptibility to invasion, since near-complete exploitation can each occur in both species-rich and species-poor communities. Though Lonsdale found a positive association between species richness and invasion, this may arise from the tendency of diverse plant communities to be nutrient poor and therefore more responsive to the effects of human-caused influxes of nutrients.
题目

1. The passage is primarily concerned with

A. assessing the empirical success of a theory

B. explaining why no consistent theoretical account of a phenomenon has been possible

C. advocating a potential solution to a theoretical impasse

D. deducing testable predictions from a proposed theory

E. describing the difficulties involved in explaining certain empirical results 

2. It can be inferred that the author would most likely agree with which of the following assessments of the results from field studies

A. Many of the results contradicted predictions of susceptibility to invasion that are based on the availability of resources unused by the community.

B. If fluctuating resource availability were taken into account, many of the apparent inconsistencies among the results could be explained.

C. The apparent inconsistencies and ambiguities in the results are caused by trying to make them fit an inadequate general theory of invasibility.

D. No general theory of invasibility has emerged because none of the studies has been able to assess the degree of an invasion accurately.

E. The results tend to show a degree of susceptibility to invasion that is lower than would be expected given the prevalence in the wild of nonnative species. 

3. According to the author, the theory based on fluctuating resource availability might resolve “apparently conflicting and ambiguous results” because

A. It explains how a particular circumstance can produce disparate effects.

B. It does not assume that all of the results are instances of the phenomenon that the theory is intended to explain.

C. It predicts that seemingly minor variations in research methodology can have a dramatic effect on results.

D. Its account is based on a statistical tendency rather than on the supposition that the results arise from a causal connection.

E. It indicates why a similar outcome may be preceded by very different circumstances on different occasions.

答案
1.C   2.B    3.E    

文章 5

The history of the transmission of ancient Roman texts prior to invention of the printing press is reconstructed from evidence both internal and external to the texts themselves. Internal evidence is used to reconstruct the relationship of the surviving manuscripts of a Roman text to one another, as represented in a modern stemma codicum: a diagram depicting the genealogical relationship of surviving manuscripts and those the stemmas editor believes existed at one time. Stemma are scholar’s only road maps to textual connections based on internal evidence, but they may paint a distorted picture of reality because they diagram the relationships of only those manuscripts known or inferred today. If surviving copies are few, the stemma perforce brings into proximity manuscripts that were widely separated in time and place of origin. Conversely, the stemma can also bestow a semblance of separation on manuscripts written within a few months of one another or even in the same room.

One type of external evidence that may shed light on the transmission of Roman texts is the availability of a work in the Middle Ages, when many classical texts were circulated. Too often, though, too much is inferred about a particular works circulation in the Middle Ages from the number of manuscripts surviving today. When a work survives in a single manuscript copy, editors call the manuscript, rather glamorously, the lone survivor–implying that all its (presumably rare) companions were destroyed sometime early in the Middle Ages by pillaging barbarians. It is equally possible that the work survived far into the Middle Ages in numerous copies in monastic libraries but were unnoticed due to lack of interest. The number of extant manuscripts, however few, really does not allow scholars to infer how many ancient Latin manuscripts of a work survived to the ninth, the twelfth, or even the fifteenth century.

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