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GRE写作技巧之满分范文

2018-07-10 14:11 小马过河 admin

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摘要:Sample Issue Task As people rely more and more on technology to solve problems, the ability of humans to think for themselves will surely deteriorate. Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these considerations shape your positio

 

Sample Issue Task

As people rely more and more on technology to solve problems, the ability of humans to think for themselves will surely deteriorate.

Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these considerations shape your position.

Essay Response — Score 6

The statement linking technology negatively with free thinking plays on recent human experience over the past century. Surely there has been no time in history where the lived lives of people have changed more dramatically. A quick reflection on a typical day reveals how technology has revolutionized the world. Most people commute to work in an 1automobile that runs on an internal combustion engine. During the workday, chances are high that the employee will interact with a 2computer that processes information on silicon bridges that are .09 microns wide. Upon leaving home, family members will be reached through 3wireless networks that utilize satellites orbiting the earth. Each of these common occurrences could have been inconceivable at the turn of the 19th century.

The statement attempts to bridge these dramatic changes to a reduction in the ability for humans to think for themselves. The assumption is that an increased reliance on technology negates the need for people to think creatively to solve previous quandaries. Looking back at the introduction, 7one could argue that without a car, computer, or mobile phone, the hypothetical worker would need to find alternate methods of transport, information processing and communication. Technology short circuits this thinking by making the problems obsolete.

However, this reliance on technology does not necessarily preclude the creativity that marks the human species. The prior examples reveal that technology allows for convenience. The car, computer and phone all release additional time for people to live more efficiently. This efficiency does not preclude the need for humans to think for themselves. In fact, technology frees humanity to not only tackle new problems, but may itself create new issues that did not exist without technology. 4For example, the proliferation of automobiles has introduced a need for fuel conservation on a global scale. With increasing energy demands from emerging markets, global warming becomes a concern inconceivable to the horse-and-buggy generation. Likewise dependence on oil has created nation-states that are not dependent on taxation, allowing ruling parties to oppress minority groups such as women. Solutions to these complex problems require the unfettered imaginations of maverick scientists and politicians.

In contrast to the statement, we can even see how technology frees the human imagination. Consider how the digital revolution and the advent of the internet has allowed for an unprecedented exchange of ideas. 5WebMD, a popular internet portal for medical information, permits patients to self research symptoms for a more informed doctor visit. This exercise opens pathways of thinking that were previously closed off to the medical layman. With increased interdisciplinary interactions, inspiration can arrive from the most surprising corners. 8Jeffrey Sachs, one of the architects of the UN Millenium Development Goals, based his ideas on emergency care triage techniques. The unlikely marriage of economics and medicine has healed tense, hyperinflation environments from 9South America to Eastern Europe.

This last example provides the most hope in how technology actually provides hope to the future of humanity. By increasing our reliance on technology, impossible goals can now be achieved. Consider how the late 20th century witnessed the complete elimination of 6smallpox. This disease had ravaged the human race since prehistorical days, and yet with the technology of vaccines, free thinking humans dared to imagine a world free of smallpox. Using technology, battle plans were drawn out, and smallpox was systematically targeted and eradicated.

Technology will always mark the human experience, from the discovery of fire to the implementation of nanotechnology. Given the history of the human race, there will be no limit to the number of problems, both new and old, for us to tackle. There is no need to retreat to a Luddite attitude to new things, but rather embrace a hopeful posture to the possibilities that technology provides for new avenues of human imagination.

GRE的考生在issue写作过程中都会遇到一个普遍问题就是:为什么我的文章看起来没有说服力呢?为了解决这一问题,我将通过一篇满分GRE issue范文分析带大家揭开迷惑,寻找令人信服的论证方法。

1. 举例论证

作者在文中采用了6次举例的论证方法(标号1-6),下面,我们来详细看看作者是如何引入这些例子并如何佐证观点的。

首先,文中的前三处论证出现在首段。作者列举了汽车,电脑和无线网三个生活中使用频率非常高的科技产品,以强调科技在生活中的普及性。在此,这三个例子并未用来佐证任何观点。但是向后阅读我们不难发现,这三个例子是作者为进行主体段论证所埋下的伏笔。那么这个伏笔是在什么时候被揭露了呢?

2. 驳斥法

在文章第二段中,作者用驳斥的手法为分观点论证又做了一次铺垫,也正是在这里,首段当中的伏笔发挥了真正的作用。从序号7的句子中我们不难发现,作者先为自己制造了一个对手——有人说,没有汽车,手机和电脑一样可以找到其他方法处理问题。这个和作者所要论证观点相反的陈述正是驳斥法的个部分。由于在首段中作者通过A quick reflection on a typical day, Most people,chances are high,common occurrences 强调出了三种科技产品的便捷和不可或缺性,驳斥的第二部分即自己观点的陈述上就显得尤为顺利了。他提到,科技是帮我们走了捷径。

实际上,驳斥是一种非常常见并具极强说服力的论证方法。通常情况下,当我们找到题干的逻辑漏洞(多是绝对化逻辑时)时,可以考虑用此方法。具体的使用方法是:找出支持题干(即与自己支持观点相反的观点)的论点,以“有人说”的口吻呈现出来,然后趁虚而入,打击其逻辑漏洞并趁机将自己的观点展露出来。例如:题目:过分专注于GRE单词,而忽略了英文应用能力的提高。假使我们支持该观点,主题段首先需要论证背单词用处小,驳斥的方法就应该是:有人说,要考GRE,就要狂背单词书(制造的反面观点)。但是,背单词只是学习的一部分,生词的理解和记忆最扎实的方法应当是从阅读中获取。

3. 双N原则

在点中我们就提到了举例论证的方法。但是相信许多学生都会又这样的困扰:自己的例子太幼稚,编的例子显得太假,真实的例子说理又仿佛没那么有力。那么针对这些问题,我们具体应当怎么做呢?

首先,举个人事例是相对次要的选项。因为,个人的事例不具有代表性,所以说服力不如名人的例子来的强,第二是因为由于语言组织的问题,描写个人的例子非常容易出现流水账的情况,内容拖沓又显得幼稚。因此,不建议考生们列举个人事例,而以名人,名企业,名事件的例子为佳。

其次,怎样能使得例子更具有说服力呢?这就不得不提到英文写作中常用到的一个技巧:双N原则,即Name and Number。我们来看第四段medicine和economical model例子中序号5,7,9的部分不难发现,作者在举例过程中给出了3个详细的Name,这无形中增加了例子的真实性,也就增强了论证的说服力。

其实,在学术写作中,双N原则的应用是非常广泛的,让我们再来看一个例子。Microsystems and Oracle have announced that they are attempting to develop terminals with little computing power, but a full capability to access the Internet. These devices will be in approximately the $500 price range, which is much more reasonable than the

price of the current top of the line PC. 这是另外一篇GRE官方范文中的一句话。下划线部分中作者用了Microsystems and Oracle和 $500两个N,有力 证明了terminals应用的性。由此可见,给出Name and Number在举例中的重要性。

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