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GRE阅读常见文章结构——现象解释类

2019-04-04 16:00 三立在线 admin

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摘要:GRE文章的结构是多种多样的,每个作者都有自己的行文思路。但是,GRE文章取材都是来源于学术文章,学术文章基本都遵循一定的章法;而且这些文章会经过改写和删减之后呈现出来,而这些改写的过程也要符合GRE统一的出题思路,所以不同领域、不同长度的GRE文章在结构上会有相似之处。因此,我们可以在做阅读的过程中总结一下常见的文

   GRE文章的结构是多种多样的,每个作者都有自己的行文思路。但是,GRE文章取材都是来源于学术文章,学术文章基本都遵循一定的章法;而且这些文章会经过改写和删减之后呈现出来,而这些改写的过程也要符合GRE统一的出题思路,所以不同领域、不同长度的GRE文章在结构上会有相似之处。因此,我们可以在做阅读的过程中总结一下常见的文章类型。

  有哪些常见文章结构类型?

  常见的文章类型有观点对比型,现象解释型,问题解决/解答型,现象/观点说明型等等的基本类别,但一篇文章也会有多种类型复合的情况,比如现象解释+观点对比。我们今天来介绍其中一种文章类型:现象解释型。

  现象解释型

  这类文章经常是开头提出了一个匪夷所思的现象,一个有待解释的现象,然后后面对此进行猜测、解释或者验证。全篇文章都围绕着被解释的这个现象展开,这个现象就是全文thesis。后面一定会提到一种或多种解释或者猜测,那么这些猜测也是全文需要抓取的重点。既然提出了解释或者猜测,肯定不是一句半句话可以讲清楚的,所以通常每个猜测后面还会有关于这些猜测的详细信息。

  我们来看两篇短文认识一下这种文章类型:

  Although the hormone adrenaline is known to regulate memory storage, it does not pass from the blood into brain cells. We are faced with an apparent paradox: how can a hormone that does not act directly on the brain have such a large effect on brain function?

  Recently, we tested the possibility that one of the hormone’s actions outside the brain might be responsible. Since one consequence of adrenaline release in an animal is an increase in blood glucose levels, we examined the effects of glucose on memory in rats. We found that glucose injected immediately after training enhances memory tested the next day. Additional evidence was provided by negative findings: drugs called adrenergic antagonists, which block peripheral adrenaline receptors, disrupted adrenaline’s ability to regulate memory but did not affect memory enhancements produced by glucose that was not stimulated by adrenaline. These results are as they should be if adrenaline affects memory modulation by increasing blood glucose levels.

  这篇文章开头先展示了一个匪夷所思的现象(橘色部分),第二段开头是对这个现象的一个可能的解释,后面是他们做实验来验证这个假设。文章的结构可以简化为:

  现象——解释+细节

  但是现象解释型的文章也不全是只有一个解释的情况,比如下面这篇:

  One explanation for the tendency of animals to be more vigilant in smaller groups than in larger ones assumes that the vigilant behavior—looking up, for example—is aimed at predators. If individuals on the edge of a group are more vigilant because they are at greater risk of being captured, then individuals on average would have to be more vigilant in smaller groups, because the animals on the periphery of a group form a greater proportion of the whole group as the size of the group diminishes.

  However, a different explanation is necessary in cases where the vigilant behavior is not directed at predators. J. Krebs has discovered that great blue herons look up more often when in smaller flocks than when in larger ones, solely as a consequence of poor feeding conditions. Krebs hypothesizes that the herons in smaller flocks are watching for herons that they might follow to better feeding pools, which usually attract larger numbers of the birds.

  这篇文章开头就提出了对某个现象的第一种解释,这个现象也在同一句当中被描述了。但是在说完第一种解释的细节之后,第二段通过一个转折引出了第二种解释,后面是关于这种解释的细节。所以这篇文章的结构可以简化为:

  现象——解释1+细节——(转折)解释2+细节

  总结常见类型有什么好处?

  其一,在你知道了常见套路之后,在读前面的内容的时候就能预测后面的内容走向,再带着这个预测去读后面的内容,比起被动接收每一句话的信息,会觉得轻松不少,这样看到陌生的文章内容就不会慌张了。

  其二,文章类型对把握主旨有很重要的影响。只要你能准确判断文章结构的类型,就算文章细节内容把握不准,选主旨题的时候基本不会有太大误差。

  因此,同学们在自己读文章的时候,不妨多总结一下文章类型,以便对全文有一个全局把握。

 

 

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