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2018年06月15日GRE考试真题回忆

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摘要:作文机经 Issue Education will be truly effective only when it is specifically designed to meet the individual needs and interests of each student. Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take.In developing and supporting your position,you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these consi

 作文机经

  Issue

  Education will be truly effective only when it is specifically designed to meet the individual needs and interests of each student.

  Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take.In developing and supporting your position,you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these considerations shape your position.

  题目翻译

  只有针对每个学生的需要和兴趣,教育才真正有效。

  提纲分析

  Position: There is no doubt that education should pay more attention on the needs and interests of students, but it is impossible for education to satisfy each individual.

  1、 从教育的目的上讨论,兴趣对教育的重要性;对个人,爱因斯坦有句至理名言:“兴趣是最好的老师”;对社会,教育的目的就是为社会培养各种人才,如果不注重学生兴趣,那么他们到社会不可能尽其所能。有时候可能埋没人才。比如一味的强调分数,那么对发明有兴趣的学生可能会失去动力,e.g.哥白尼以前学医,爱因斯坦小时候学习并不好,牛顿因为一个苹果而想到万有引力等等。

  2、 学校须努力发现并培养学生的兴趣。因为有些学生没有意识到自己的兴趣,所以学校要在这方面作引导。E.g.学校可以通过开设多种选修课,丰富学生课余生活并组织各类社团活动,增加各类奖学金等方法来鼓励学生培养自己的兴趣。

  3、 但是,鼓励兴趣的培养不等于学校就要根据每个学生的兴趣来进行教育,这既无意义也不现实。一方面老师是有限的,而学生的兴趣是各种各样的;另一方面,年轻的学生并没有足够的判断力来决定自己该学什么,比如数学,有些学生不喜欢学,但是能直接完全放弃吗?过分强调学生兴趣势必会造成教学的紊乱,而且学生的兴趣不同阶段可能发生改变。

  4、总结:是要重视兴趣对教育发挥作用的重要性,但也不可以一味以学生个人爱好为转移。

  Argument

  The following appeared in a magazine article about planning for retirement."Clearview should be a top choice for anyone seeking a place to retire, because it has spectacular natural beauty and a consistent climate. Another advantage is that housing costs in Clearview have fallen significantly during the past year, and taxes remain lower than those in neighboring towns. Moreover, Clearview's mayor promises many new programs to improve schools,streets,and public services. And best of all, retirees in Clearview can also expect excellent health care as they grow older, since the number of physicians in the area is far greater than the national average."

  Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument.

  题目翻译

  由于Clearview的天然景色和温和气候, 它应该成为那些为退休后寻找生活地的人的首选。另一项好处是,Clearview的房价在去年显著下降,税赋一直比邻近城市低。而且,Clearview的市长承诺了很多新方案来改善学校、街道和公共服务。最好的一点是,Clearview的退休人员也可以在老年时享受到出色的医疗服务, 因为该地区的医生数量高于全国平均水平。

  提纲分析

  1. Clearview的房价下降和赋税比邻近城市低,并不能足以说明该城市生活花销少或宜居,且缺少具体数据比较等。

  2. 虽然提及市长的承诺,但只是说要改善,并不明确了解新方案尤其是涉及公共服务等方面的具体举措有什么,也不确定承诺何时成真,所以并无法吸引退休人员。

  3. 并不能因为该地区医生数量多,就直接得出医疗服务出色这个结论,人数和质量并不能成正比。而且如 Clearview 原本人口就很多,那医生数量高也是正常的,退休人员过去居住也并感受不到什么优势。

 

 填空等价机经

  1. In the solar system, collisions among the planets are among the most _____processes shaping surfaces: many a picture of the planets in it show that a proliferation of impact craters happened in the last 4 to 5 billion years.

  A. cataclysmic

  B. pervasive

  C. misleading

  D. clairvoyant

  E. vivacious

  答案:E

  解析:在太阳系中,行星碰撞形成的表面是最_____过程之一:这行星的图片显示,增殖许多陨石坑发生在过去 40 到 50 亿年。A.激变 B.普适 c.误导 D.透视 E.活泼,通过后半句的年份可以看出其实是想体现过程的缓慢,也就是说最快的过程也需要非常久的时间,答案选E。

  2. Researchers in University of Maryland discover that many people subconsciously think that in assessment of others competence and warmth are(i) _____: when they feel someone is highly capable,they will assert that he or she must have a tendency to be (ii) _____.

  Blank (i) Blank (ii)

  A. clearly interconnected D. passive

  B. inversely related E. nonchalant

  C. physically paralyzed F. unfeeling

  答案:BE

  解析:A 显然是相互联系的 D.消极的B 成反比 E.漠不关心的 C 肢体瘫痪 F.没有同情心的 可以看出 i 为 B,ii 为 E,答案符合逻辑。

  3. View people as "social atoms" that obey rather simple rules (which are not unlike the laws of physics),we may discover certain patterns, or "(i)_____"Buchanan illustrates the approach with a very simple example:the way channels emerge when people move in crowds.In the midst of initially (ii) _____movements,one person begins to follow another in an effort to avoid collisions,and streams of movement emerge. As more people join such streams,there is greater pull on others to join in the flow,and the particular channels become (iii) _____.

  Blank (i) Blank (ii) Blank (iii)

  A. law-like regularities D. clear G. self‐perpetuating

  B. regular cases E. tranquil H. self-defacing

  C. convoluted disorders F. chaotic I. self-sufficient

  答案:AFG

  解析:人们行为有固定模式或(i)_____,比如说一开始大家都(ii)_____移动,然后一个人开始跟着另一个人走以免碰撞,然后就出现了通道。随着更多人参与进来,通道就变得(iii)_____空白(i) 空白(ii) 空白(ii)

  A 法规 D.清楚的 G.能使自身永久存在的

  B.常例 E.平静的 H.自我丑化的

  C.紊乱 F.混乱的 I.自给自足的

  在空白(i)中要选择“固定模式”的同义词,所以选择 A。在空白(ii)中要说一开始是没有通道的,所以选择 F。在空白(ii)中要说通道会一直存在着,所以选择 G

  4. The eccentric Canadian Prime Minister, Mackenzie King,often used stances to contact his dead pet dog for advice; despite this _____ behavior,the public had so much confidence in his ability as a leader that he was in power for 22 years.

  A. capricious

  B. lackluster

  C. poised

  D. unconventional

  E. repulsive

  F. decorous

  答案:AD

  解析:这道题是说人们还是很相信加拿大总理的领导能力,虽然古怪的他会有向死去的宠物狗咨询的_____行为。

  A.任性无常 B.平凡 C.镇定 D.非传统 E.令人厌恶 F.稳重端庄

  这里要对应“古怪的”,所以选择 A.D.

  5. The circulation of the blood makes human adaptability to the _____conditions of life, such as fluctuating atmospheric pressure, level of physical activity, and diet, possible.

  A. inveterate

  B. dynamic

  C. timorous

  D. cowed

  E. turgid

  F. oscillating

  答案:BF

  解析:这道题是说血液循环让人们适应_____的生活条件,比如说波动的大气压力,不同的体力活动以及饮食。

  A.根深蒂固的 B.动态的 C.胆怯的 D.受到恐吓的 E.晦涩难懂的 F.浮动的

  这里要对应“波动的”,“不同的”,所以选择 B.F.

  6. Despite the implications of their noble status, many aristocrats were virtually penniless and lived in a state of _____.

  A. indigence

  B. opulence

  C. eminence

  D. penury

  E. depravity

  F. complacency

  答案:AD

  解析:这道题是说虽然贵族身份显赫,但是他们中很多人身无分文,生活状态_____。

  A.贫穷 B.富裕 C.名声显赫 D.贫穷 E.堕落 F.自满

  这里要对应“身无分文的”,所以选择 A.D.

 

  数学机经

  1.

  Quantity A: x

  Quantity B: y

  A. Quantity A is greater.

  B. Quantity B is greater.

  C. The two quantities are equal.

  D. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  答案:D

  解析:只从 PQ=RT 而不清楚 QR 的长度,是无法判断 x 和 y 度数大小的,因此选 D。

  2. Jim exercised last Monday at 6:00 in the evening and then exercised every third day after that. For example, after last Monday, he exercised the following Thursday and then the Sunday following that. How many days after last Monday will be the next Monday he exercises?

  答案:21

  解析:周一锻炼,之后每隔3天锻炼,问下次锻炼为周一时与第一次周一间隔多少天,穷举法 1,4,7,3,6,2,5,1,当中间隔三周,因此为 21 天。

  3. The population of Country X for 1980 was p. The population of Country X increased by 3.8 percent in each of the next two years.

  Quantity A: The population of Country X for 1982.

  Quantity B: 1.076p

  A. Quantity A is greater.

  B. Quantity B is greater.

  C. The two quantities are equal.

  D. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  答案:A

  解析:Quantity A 计算公式为 p(1+3.8%)^2, 得出结果约为 1.077p,A 大于 B,所以选 A。

  4. If x < y, which of the following must be true?

  A. 2x < y

  B. 2x > y

  C. x^2 < y^2

  D. 2x-y < y

  E. 2x-y < 2xy

  答案:D

  解析:D 项可变形为 2x < 2y, 即题干的 x < y, 是唯一正确解,其它等式缺乏条件,无法成立。

  5. 1/2 < r < 1

  Quantity A: 2r

  Quantity B: 1/r

  A. Quantity A is greater.

  B. Quantity B is greater.

  C. The two quantities are equal.

  D. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  答案:D

  解析:如果 r=2/3, 则 A=4/3 B=1.5, AB。因此存在不同结果无法判断,所以选 D。

  阅读逻辑机经

  短篇阅读

  Few mathematical constructs seem as conceptually simple as that of randomness.According to the traditional definition, a number is random if it is chosen purely as the result of a probabilistic mechanism such as the roll of a fair die.I'd their ground breaking work regarding complexity and the limitations of formal systems,mathematicians Gregory Chaitin and A.N.Kolmogorov force us to consider this last claim more closely.Consider two possible outcomes of throwing a fair die three times: first,1,6,and 2;second 3,3,and 3.Now let us construct two three-member sets based on the results.Though the first set—{1,6,2}—intuitively seems more random than the second—{3,3,3},they are each as likely to occur, and thus according to the accepted definition,must be considered equally random.This unwelcome result prompts Chaitin and Kolmogorov to suggest the need for a new standard of randomness,one that relies on the internal coherence of the set as opposed to its origin.

  1. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage as whole?

  A. A concept is introduced; a traditional definition is put forward; a thought experiment is described; a new definition is proposed; the traditional definition is amended as a result.

  B. A concept is introduced;a traditional definition is supported by authorities;a thought experiment is described; the implications of the experiment are discussed.

  C. A concept is introduced;a traditional definition is considered and rejected;a thought experiment is described; a new definition is proposed.

  D. A concept is introduced; a traditional definition is called into question; a thought experiment is described; the implications of the experiment are discussed.

  E. A concept is introduced;authorities are called in to reevaluate a definition;a thought experiment is described; the implications of the experiment are considered

  and rejected.

  答案:C

  解析:根据文章主旨,文章首先介绍了随机这个概念,对应选项C中:…concept…introduced…;然后再详细展开,并且说了这个定义的不足,对应选项C中:…traditional…considered and rejected;接着举例介绍了掷骰子实验,对应选项 C中:…thought experiment…;最后说要有基于内在统一的新定义出现才可以:对应选项 C中:…new definition…。

  2. Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.Which of the following is an inference made in the passage above?

  A. The results of the same probabilistic mechanism will each be as likely as the other to occur.

  B. According to the traditional definition of randomness, two numbers should be considered equally random if they result from the same probabilistic mechanism.

  C. Different probabilistic mechanisms are likely to result in similar outcomes.

  答案:B

  解析:注意这不是一道单选题,而是一道针对每个选项是否正确的选择题。A 选项不够严谨,若是按照传统定义则为正确,若是按照新定义则为错误,所以不能选;B 选项符合传统定义,只要是从随机机器里抽选出来的都是随机的;C 选项错在 different…mechanisms,原文没有比较不同的随机机器。

  长篇阅读

  Mary Barton, particularly in its early chapters, is a moving response to the suffering of the industrial worker in the England of the 1840s.What is most impressive about the book is the intense and painstaking effort made by the author, Elizabeth Gaskell,to convey the experience of everyday life in working class homes. Her method is partly documentary in nature: the novel includes such features as a carefully annotate reproduction of dialect, the exact details of food prices in an account of a tea party, an itemized description of the furniture of the Bartons’ living room, and”. The interest of this record is considerable, even though the method has a slightly distancing effect.

  As a member of the middle class,Gaskell could hardly help approaching working-class life as an outside observer and a reporter, and the reader of the novel is always conscious of this fact. But there is genuine imaginative re-creation in her accounts of the walk in Green Heys Fields, of tea at the Bartons’ house, and of John Barton and his friend’s discovery of the starving family in the cellar in the chapter “Poverty and Death.” Indeed, for a similarly convincing re-creation of such families’ emotions and responses (which are more crucial than the material details on which the mere reporter is apt to concentrate), the English novel had to wait 60 years for the early writing of D. H. Lawrence. If Gaskell never quite conveys the sense of full participation that would completely authenticate this aspect of Mary Barton, she still brings to these scenes an intuitive recognition of feelings that has its own sufficient conviction.

  The chapter “Old Alice’s History” brilliantly dramatizes the situation of that early generation of workers brought from the villages and the countryside to the urban industrial centers.The account of Job Leigh, the weaver and naturalist who is devoted to the study of biology, vividly embodies one kind of response to an urban industrial environment: an affinity for living things that hardens, by its very contrast with its environment, into a kind of crankiness.The early chapters—about factory workers walking out in spring into Green Heys Fields,about Alice Wilson,remembering in her cellar the twig-gathering for brooms in the native village that she will never again see, about job Leigh, intent on his impaled insects—capture the characteristic responses of a generation to the new and crushing experience of industrialism. The other early chapters eloquently portray the development of the instinctive cooperation with each other that was already becoming an important tradition among workers.

  1. It can be inferred from examples given in the last paragraph of the passage that which of the following was part of “the new and crushing experience of industrialism” for many members of the English working class in the nineteenth century.

  A. Extortionate food prices

  B. Geographical displacement

  C. Hazardous working conditions

  D. Alienation from fellow workers

  E. Dissolution of family ties

  答案:C

  解析:根据文章最后一段,织布工和自然主义者 Job Leigh 看到被刺穿的昆虫非常着急,我们可以推测出织布工厂会造成伤害十分危险,对应选项 C 中:Hazardous working conditions。

  2. It can be inferred that the author of the passage believes that Mary Barton might have been an even better novel if Gaskell

  A. concentrated on the emotions of a single character

  B. made no attempt to re-create experiences of which she had no firsthand knowledge

  C. made no attempt to reproduce working-class dialects

  D. grown up in an industrial city

  E. managed to transcend her position as an outsider

  答案:E

  解析:根据文章第二段最后一句,如果 Gaskell 可以在描述中加入足够多的参与感,Mary Barton 会显得更加真实。再根据文章第二段第一句,我们知道作者 Gaskell 是中产阶级,所以写 Mary Barton 时总有局外人的感觉。结合起来我们知道,如果作者 Gaskell 可以超越自己的身份地位,更有参与感地描述工人阶级,Mary Barton 会是一本更好的书,对应选项 E 中:…transcend…position…outsider。

  3. Which of the following best describes the author’s attitude toward Gaskell’s use of the method of documentary record in Mary Barton?

  A. uncritical enthusiasm

  B. Unresolved ambivalence

  C. Qualified approval

  D. Resigned acceptance

  E. Mild irritation

  答案:C

  解析:根据文章第一段最后一句,这样的描述好处是巨大的,虽然这种描述方法会让读者感觉心理距离变远了。“好处是巨大的”对应选项 C 中:approval,“虽然这种描述方法会让读者感觉心理距离变远了”对应选项 C 中:Qualified。

  4. Which of the following is most closely analogous to Job Leigh in Marry Barton, as that character is described in the passage?

  A. An entomologist who collected butterflies as a child

  B. A small-town attorney whose hobby is nature photography

  C. A young man who leaves his family’s dairy farm to start his own business

  D. A city dweller who raises exotic plants on the roof of his apartment building

  E. A union organizer who works in a textile mill under dangerous conditions

  答案:E

  解析:根据文章最后一段第二句话,我们知道 Job Leigh 是织布工,也是专注于研究生物学的自然主义者,工业化让他变得对活着的东西从喜欢到偏执。再根据文章最后一段第三句话,我们知道 Job Leigh 对被工业化害死的昆虫非常担忧。我们可以从他是织布工的职业推测出他在纺织厂工作,对应选项E 中:works in a textile mill,我们还可以从他总是看到昆虫被工业化的机器所伤害,推测出他的工作环境很危险,对应选项E 中:under dangerous conditions。

  逻辑阅读

  Anaerobic glycolysis is a process in which energy is produced, without oxygen,through the breakdown of muscle glycogen into lactic acid and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy provider. The amount of energy that can be produced anaerobically is a function of the amount of glycogen present—in all vertebrates about 0.5 percent of their muscles’wet weight.Thus the anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the size of the animal.If,for example,some predators had attacked a 100-ton dinosaur,normally torpid,the dinosaur would have been able to generate almost instantaneously,via anaerobic glycolysis,the energy of 3,000 humans at maximum oxidative metabolic energy production.

  The passage's suggestion that the total anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the vertebrate's size is based on which of the following assumption?

  A. larger vertebrates conserve more energy than smaller vertebrates

  B. larger vertebrates use less oxygen per unit weight than smaller vertebrates

  C. the ability of a vertebrate to consume food is a function of its size

  D. the amount of muscle tissue in a vertebrate is directly related to its size

  E. the size of a vertebrate is proportional to the quantity of energy it can utilize

  答案:E

  解析:本文是关于无氧糖酵解产生能量的过程,且提出动物体积越大,所产生的能量储备也就越多。以恐龙为例,说明其遭遇攻击所能产生的能量之巨大。题干中问"the total anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the vertebrate's size"这一论点是根据哪一条假定推断出来的,通读选项不难得出 E。

 

 

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