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2018年03月17日GRE考试真题回忆

2018-12-07 18:13 三立在线 admin

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摘要:作文机经 The most effective way to communicate an idea or value to large groups of people is through the use of images, not language. Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take.In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these considerations sh

 作文机经

  "The most effective way to communicate an idea or value to large groups of people is through the use of images, not language."

  Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take.In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these considerations shape your position.

  题干分析

  和一大群人交流想法或者价值观的最有效方式是图像而非语言。

  Outline

  The use of images is not always more effective than that of language.

  1. On the one hand,images are more vivid and easier for the largest audience to comprehend.

  2. On the other hand,images tend to cause ambiguities.

  3. The most effective way of communication is combing the use of images and that of language.

  Argument

  The following appeared in a letter from a firm providing investment advice for a client.

  Most homes in the northeastern United States,where winters are typically cold,have traditionally used oil as their major fuel for heating. Last heating season that region experienced 90 days with below-normal temperatures, and climate forecasters predict that this weather pattern will continue for several more years.Furthermore,many new homes are being built in the region in response to recent population growth. Because of these trends,we predict an increased demand for heating oil and recommend investment in Consolidated Industries,one of whose major business operations is the retail sale of home heating oil.

  Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument.Be sure to explain how the argument depends on these assumptions and what the implications are for the argument if the assumptions prove unwarranted.

  题目翻译

  以下是一家提供投资建议的公司写给一位客户的信:

  “在美国东北部,冬天通常会很冷,大多数在那里的家庭有将燃油作为主要供暖能源的传统。上一个供暖季节,那个地区有九十天的温度低于平均水平,气候预报员预测,未来几年内的气候类型都会是这样。而且,最近的人口增长导致许多新家庭在这个地区落户。由亍上述趋势,我们估计取暖油的需求将会增加,推荐您投资 Consolidated Industries,其主营项目之一是家用燃料油的零售。”

  说明:写一篇文章,检查论证过程中陈述和/或未陈述的假设。一定要解释论证过程是如何依赖这些假设建立的,如果这些假设被证明是不合理的,对于论证过程来说有哪些潜在影响。

  题目分析

  A. 前提:we predict an increased demand for heating oil

  我们估计取暖油的需求将会增加

  B. 结论:we recommend investment in Consolidated Industries, one of whose major business operations is the retail sale of home heating oil

  我们推荐您投资 Consolidated Industries,其主营项目之一是家用燃料油的零售

  C. 论据:

  1. most homes in the northeastern United States,where winters are typically cold,have traditionally used oil as their major fuel for heating

  在美国东北部,冬天通常会很冷,大多数在那里的家庭有将燃油作为主要供暖能源的传统

  2. last heating season that region experienced 90 days with below-normal temperatures

  上一个供暖季节,那个地区有九十天的温度低于平均水平

  3. climate forecasters predict that this weather pattern will continue for several more years

  气候预报员预测,未来几年内的气候类型都会是这样

  4. many new homes are being built in the region in response to recent population growth

  最近的人口增长导致许多新家庭在这个地区落户

  提纲(可攻击点)

  1、新落户在该地的家庭是否会根据当地传统适用燃油来取暖?

  New inhabitants, who have moved there, will not necessarily use the same source as the local residents.If some of them have been accustomed to electric heating,and they have not used oil for heating before, they probably would not choose oil.And we do not know the detail number of the new residents,if there have 200,000 native residents,and the number of new inhabitants is just 500, thus the new inhabitants are relatively less and they will make little effect on oil consumption.

  2、除了天气变冷,还有哪些其他因素影响着当地家庭对燃料油的需求?

  The cold weather is not the only factor, influencing the need for oil in the local,but a crucial factor.There is a combination of factors,such as the price of oil,the income of a family,the consumption of other sources for heating.If the price of oil is increasing with the decreasing temperature, many families with finite incomes will limit their consumption of oil.

  Although the oil is the traditional heating source,it cannot illustrate all the local residents only use it for heating.With the generalization of natural gas,part of the residents may also use natural gas.

  Therefore,even if the weather is getting colder, it is not necessary to boost the total consumption of oil.

  3、当地家庭储备燃料油是否主要通过零售购买?还有哪些其他方式?

  The local residents reserve heating oil by many ways, besides the retail.

  The wholesale is a general way to purchase the oil, because the price is lower than the retail.

  4、当地人是否一定会购买Consolidated Industries 的家用燃料油?题目忽视了哪些(比如:市场竞争等)关键信息?

  The firm has ignored/overlooked the market competition.There is not only Consolidated Industries,who selling home heating oil. Many other strong peer companies would offer more alluring condition and price to attract the residents to buy their oil.

  So even if the residents buy oil, they would not necessarily choose Consolidated.

  填空等价机经

  1. His colorful lifestyle aside, Bob Dylan's reputation as a _____ artist stems from the vast number of songs he produced during the 1960s and 1970s.

  A. humble

  B. flamboyant

  C. competent

  D. wealthy

  E. prolific

  正确答案:E

  题目解析:根据题意,联系前后,则说明他是多产的humble 卑微的;flamboyant 华丽的;competent 主管;wealthy 富有的;prolific 多产的

  2. After screenwriter Neil Jordan's most recent work opened in selected urban areas, many theatergoers were (i) _____ , but after pundits expressed their (ii)_____ , acceptance of the film's unique structure increased and demand for a wider release surged.

  Blank(i) Blank(ii)

  A. skeptical D. diffidence

  B. erratic E. approbation

  C. ebullient F. trepidation

  正确答案:AE

  题目解析:解题关键在于第一空后的BUT,说明是转折,一开始观众并不买账有所怀疑,而在得到与家认可后才开始认同并观看。因此最佳选项组合是 AE。

  3. Many policy makers insist that consumer spending is a strong economic (i)_____ and, therefore, (ii) _____ of retail stores is a contributing factor to low-performing economies. To improve economic conditions in Lakewood,Colorado,the city has begun charging residents a public improvement fee,on top of normal sales tax, which will (iii) _____ tax breaks offered to major retailers to attract their business.

  Blank(i) Blank(ii) Blank(iii)

  A. stratagem D. a paucity G. indemnify

  B. catalyst E. a respite H. liquidate

  C. axiom F. an apex I. underwrite

  正确答案:BDI

  题目解析:许多政策制定者坚持认为,消费者的支出是经济的强烈催化剂,因此,缺乏零售商店是造成经济低迷的一个因素。为了改善科罗拉多州莱克伍德的经济状况,除去普通的销售税,市政府已经开始在市民中收取可以吸引零售商业的公共建设费。

  4. The _____ nature of the commencement speech did not sit well with the restless group of recent graduates.

  A. protracted

  B. concise

  C. verbose

  D. vigorous

  E. contrite

  F. premeditated

  正确答案:AC

  题目解析:题目大意是毕业典礼上冗长的演讲不太适合这群焦躁不安的应届毕业生。

  A protracted 拖延;绘制 B concise 简明的,简洁的 C verbose 冗长的;啰嗦的

  D vigorous 有力的;精力充沛的 E contrite 悔悟了的;后悔的 F premeditated 预谋的;预先考虑的

  5. It was clear after the incident that,while she may have answered truthfully in the strictest sense of the word,Sheryl was actually trying to _____ Sergei.

  A. enlighten

  B. delude

  C. illuminate

  D. covet

  E. gull

  F. implicate

  正确答案:BE

  题目解析:事故后很明显的是,严格意义上 Sheryl 应该说实话,但是她却试图欺骗 Sergei.

  A enlighten 启发,启蒙 B delude 欺骗;哄骗 C illuminate 阐明,说明

  D covet 垂涎;觊觎 E gull 骗;欺诈 F 统计纠正错误

  6. Ancient generals, lacking modern technologies such as radio and satellite

  communication, often found that one of the most significant challenges in

  warfare was to be accurately _____ the many changes on the battlefield or in the

  campaign.

  A. fortified by

  B. adulterated by

  C. cognizant of

  D. apprised of

  E. parodied by

  F. chary of

  正确答案:CD

  题目解析:在缺乏无线电广播和卫星通信的古代,将军们在战争中最大的挑战就是要准确的认识到戓争中的变化。

  A fortified by 加强的 B adulterated by 掺假的 C cognizant of 已认识到

  D apprised of 获悉 E parodied by 拙劣模仿 F chary of 谨慎的;仔绅的

  数学机经

  1. Which of the following operations carried out on both the numerator and the denominator of a fraction will always produce an equivalent fraction?

  Indicate all such operations?

  A. Adding 2

  B. Multiplying by 5

  C. Dividing by 100

  答案:B C

  解析:题目问以下哪些在分子和分母上同时迚行的做法不会让分数发生变化?A各加2错误。B 都乘 5,上下抵消还是原值,正确。C 都除以 100,同样上下抵消,正确。所以选 BC。

  2. In a certain medical group,Dr.Schwartz schedules appointments to begin 30 minutes apart,Dr.Ramirez schedules appointments to begin 25 minutes apart,and Dr.Wu schedules appointments to begin 50 minutes apart.All three doctors schedule their first appointments to begin at 8:00 in the morning,which are followed by their successive appointments throughout the day without breaks.Other than at 8:00 in the morning,at what times before 1:30 in the afternoon do all three doctors schedule their appointments to begin at the same time? Indicate all such times

  A. 9:30 in the morning

  B. 10:30 in the morning

  C. 11:30 in the morning

  D. 12:00 noon

  E. 1:00 in the afternoon

  答案:B E

  解析:S 是每 30min有一次预约,R每25min,W每50min,中间没有停顿。题目问从早上8点到13:30之间,抛开早上8点那次,还有那几个时间点是这三个医生同时开始一个预约的。解答时先求出这三个时间的最小公倍数,也就是150分钟,说明每隔2.5个小时这三个医生会同时开始一项新的预约。则在给定的时间段内,10:30和13:00这两个时间他们会同时开始新的预约,所以选 BE。

  3. Set A has 50 members and set B has 53 members.At least 2 of the members in set A are not in set B.Which of the following could be the number of members in set B that are not in set A ? Indicate all such numbers.

  A. 53

  B. 5

  C. 13

  D. 25

  E. 50

  答案:A B C D E

  解析:题目说至少有两个在A里面的数不在B里,那么完全有可能所有在A里的数都不在B中,所以B中所有的数就可以都不在A里面了。两个极值可得出范围:

  1. A中48个成员也同时在B中, 得出符合所得要求(in set B that are not in set A)的最小值53-48=5;

  2. A中没有成员同时在B中, 得出符合所得要求(in set B that are not in set A)的最大值53-0=53选项所有数据均在范围内,因此全选。

  4.

  What is the area of triangle ABC shown above?

  A. 18

  B. 20

  C. 12√3

  D. 18√3

  E. 36

  答案:D

  解析:30,60,90 度内角三角形变长特殊比例为:1:√3:2,因此对应 AB 和 AC 长度分别为 6 和 6√3,三角形面积为 18√3,选 D。

  5. Quantity A:the sum of the first 7 positive integers

  Quantity B:7 times the median of the first 7 positive integers

  A. Quantity A is greater.

  B. Quantity B is greater.

  C. The two quantities are equal.

  D. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  答案:C

  解析:QUANTA前7个正整数,也就是1到7之和为28.QUANT B前7个正整数里中位数的7倍,也就是4的7倍为28. 两者相等,所以选 C。

  阅读机经

  短篇阅读

  Attempts to brand the belly dance as an act of seduction are both demeaning and distorting.Throughout Middle Eastern history, Oriental dance---the Western term for belly dance---was primarily performed at such family occasions as weddings,births,and festivals.Early evidence indicates that it originated as a fertility dance.17,000 year-old rock engravings found in the caves of Addaura, near Palermo in Sicily,depict women swaying their hips in what appears to be a fertility rite,as do ancient Egyptian tomb paintings and Greek sculptures.In some early cultures,women gathered around one of their own when she was in labor, circling and mimicking her contractions with their stomach undulations in an effort to ease her through the birthing process.

  Early civilizations were far less regimented than those of today.Even so,it was believed that women were primarily responsible for procreation.Tribes in the South Seas,New Guinea,East Polynesia,Africa,and Greece not only thought that conception would be impossible, but also that the human race would die unless the women performed the fertility dance.In some cases,women were revered for their seeming command over the mysteries of nature;there are even accounts of females being brought into fields to touch the crops,so as to ensure a bountiful harvest.

  1. The passage supports which of the following assertions?

  A. Belly dancing requires little formal training.

  B. The author does not view seduction as a respectable use of the belly dance.

  C. Women who have had training in belly dance will have easier pregnancies.

  答案:B

  解析:

  The passage says nothing about the training required for the belly dance.Even though the dance originated in primitive societies,we cannot assume that it doesn't involve a formal or structured learning process.Eliminate choice (A).Choice(B),in contrast,agrees with the author's assertion in the first sentence of the passage,so keep it.Choice (C) seems tempting,in light of what the author discusses at the end of the first paragraph,but such an assertion assumes that there are no other factors affecting a woman's pregnancy.Furthermore,the women in labor described in the passage may not have known how to belly dance. Even if they had,it was the other women's dancing that is alleged to have helped them,not their own.Choice (B) is the best answer.

  2. Which sentence, in which the author makes a conclusion, is not supported with any factual or anecdotal evidence?

  答案:Early civilizations were far less regimented than those of today.

  解析:答案是第二段第一句,因为第二段第一句之后接了 even so,然后就跳到关于女性责任上去了。

  长篇阅读

  In laboratories,healthy adult human brain neurons typically live no more than a few hours,making extensive research impossible.Furthermore,scientists' inability to reproduce healthy neurons has prevented the use of neurons in experimental

  treatments of severe neurological disorders.

  However,two researchers at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine have successfully maintained mature,human brain neurons in long-term cultures by using cells obtained during surgery on an 18-month-old victim of unilateral megalencephaly.The rare disorder,in which one side of the brain grows substantially larger than the other,occurs when neurons in the abnormal hemisphere undergo too many cell divisions before they mature.The neuronal imbalance in the brain of the infant caused seizures, prompting surgeons to remove the enlarged hemisphere---a treatment that has proven successful in similar cases.The researchers then took neurons from the excised brain matter and placed them in a blood-rich culture medium. After days, many of the cells had died, but a few continued to grow and divide. Nineteen months later,the team had subcultured

  colonies of neurons onto new culture plates more than 20 times,with no significant changes in cellular appearance or growth characteristics.

  Scientists still don't know what triggers the proliferation of neurons in unilateral megalencephaly.The neurons cultivated at Johns Hopkins---unlike those culled from tumors are not cancerous, and accordingly are much more valuable as research tools. Finally,the experiment presents the possibility that such neurons could be used in experimental treatments that currently use fetal brain cells,sidestepping an uncomfortable ethical issue.

  1. It can be inferred from the passage that the removal of a hemisphere of the brain

  A. will allow researchers to expand their knowledge of neurological workings

  B. is necessary to cure unilateral megalencephaly

  C. is a viable medical procedure in some cases

  D. is usually performed on infants who suffer from unilateral megalencephaly

  E. is a rare procedure that is performed as a last resort

  答案:C

  解析:

  The second paragraph says that the neuronal imbalance causes seizures prompting surgeons to remove the enlarged hemisphere–a treatment that has proven successful in similar cases. "Some cases" is nice and wimpy.

  2. The passage supplies information to answer which of the following questions?

  A. How old is the average unilateral megalencephaly patient?

  B. Can fetal brain cells be used to treat unilateral megalencephaly?

  C. Have scientists found a way to allow cells from victims of unilateral megalencephaly to exist outside of the body?

  D. How long can neurons culled from tumors be sustained outside the body?

  E. Will scientists find further experimental uses for neurons culled from unilateral megalencephaly victims?

  答案:C

  解析:根据文章第二段可知科学家们已经找到了让绅胞在体外存活的方法,可以解答 C 的问题,其它选项问题无法从文章中找到确定答案。

  3. In the second paragraph, select the sentence in which a term is introduced that requires elucidation in a later sentence.

  答案:However,two researchers at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine have successfully maintained mature,human brain neurons in long-term cultures by using cells obtained during surgery on an 18-month-old victim of unilateral megalencephaly.

  解析:

  符合题目要求的是第一句话,其中提到了一个生词也就是 megalencephaly。之后第二句话就是在解释这个单词的意义。所以选择第二段第一句。

  逻辑阅读

  Employees of companies that offer corporate fitness programs consistently take fewer sick-days than do employees of companies that do not offer fitness programs.Thus,corporate fitness programs are shown to have a positive effect on the health of a company's workforce.

  Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?

  A. Other benefits offered by companies that do not offer corporate fitness programs surpass the benefits offered by companies that do offer such programs.

  B. Companies that offer corporate fitness programs attract employees who are more health conscious than the employees of companies that do not offer such programs.

  C. The health benefits of a corporate fitness program depend upon the particular makeup of the program.

  D. Employees who participate in corporate fitness programs are not measurably less healthy than people who exercise on their own.

  E. People who participate in fitness programs not offered by their employees are generally healthier than people who participate in corporate fitness programs.

  答案:B

  解析:

  文章的逻辑在于“公司提供健身—少生病—其他公司也应该提供健身”反驳方式可以是:

  1.否认逻辑,也就是健身和生病无关

  2.找他因,不是健身使得员工少生病而是有其他的原因

  A.没有提供健身的公司除了健身这一项外,有其他更多的好处------那么人们应该去没健身的公司,没有否认逻辑也没有找他因,错

  B.有健身的公司吸引了更多有健康意识的人,这个“他因”不算明显,但是员工少生病与他们的意识有关而不是公司的健身项目的功劳,保留

  C. makeup,毫无关系,没有体现任何逻辑,直接排除

  D.参加健身项目的人更健康,承认文中逻辑,没有削弱,错

  E.参加员工提供的健身的人比公司健身的人更加健康(员工?明明是雇主提供的),错

  综上,选择 B

 

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