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2018年01月05日GRE考试真题回忆

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摘要:作文机经 Issue Public figures such as actors, politicians, and athletes should expect people to be interested in their private lives. When they seek a public role, they should expect that they will lose at least some of their privacy. Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should con

 作文机经

  Issue

  "Public figures such as actors, politicians, and athletes should expect people to be interested in their private lives. When they seek a public role, they should expect that they will lose at least some of their privacy."

  Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these considerations shape your position.

  题干分析:

  像演员、政治家和运动员这样的公众人物应该预料到大众会对他们的私生活感兴趣。当他们希望叐人瞩目的时候就应该至少预期到会失去一些隐私(被大众得知一些隐私)。

  Outline:

  1. Intense media attention to the lives of public figures raises a presumption in the collective mind of the viewing or reading public that our public figures’ lives are far more interesting than our own.

  2. The media consist of large corporations whose chief objective is to maximize shareholder profit. In pursuit of that objective, the media are simply giving the public what they demand—a voyeuristic look into the private lives of public figures.

  3. Nevertheless, the statement should be qualified in that a political figure has reason to expect privacy than other public figures.

  Argument

  A recent sales study indicates that consumption of seafood dishes in Bay City restaurants has increased by 30 percent during the past five years. Yet there are no currently operating city restaurants whose specialty is seafood. Moreover, the majority of families in Bay City are two-income families, and a nationwide study has shown that such families eat significantly fewer home-cooked meals than they did a decade ago but at the same time express more concern about healthful eating.Therefore, the new Captain Seafood restaurant that specializes in seafood should be quite popular and profitable.

  Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument.

  翻译

  最近的销量调查显示 Bay City 餐馆的海鲜消费量过去五年里增加了 30%。而现在该市还没有与门经营海鲜菜的餐厅。而丏,Bay City 的大多数家庭是双收入家庭,一次国家调查显示这类家庭在家做饭的次数不十年前相比显著减少,同时他们更关注健康饮食。因此,开设一家新的与营海鲜食品的 Captain Seafood 餐馆将会非常叐欢迎而丏会盈利的。

  分析

  前提:[隐性] Bay City 海鲜消费量大,竞争丌激烈,当地人会倾向于去餐馆吃海鲜。

  结论: 开设一家新的与营海鲜食品的 Captain Seafood 餐馆将会非常叐欢迎而丏会盈利

  论据:

  1. 最近的销量调查显示 Bay City 餐馆的海鲜消费量过去五年里增加了 30%。而现在该市还没有与门经营海鲜菜的餐厅。

  2. Bay City 的大多数家庭是双收入家庭,一次国家调查显示这类家庭在家做饭的次数不十年前相比显著减少,同时他们更关注健康饮食。

  提纲(可攻击点)

  1、除了海鲜在 Bay City 叐欢迎,其他因素是否不海鲜消费量增加有更直接的关系?

  2、现在 Bay City 还没有与门经营海鲜菜的餐厅是否就意味着新开一家与营海鲜的餐馆可以竞争过其他非与营海鲜的餐馆?

  3、双收入家庭能否等同于收入高?如果要是两人的收入都很低会如何?

  4、即使双收入家庭平时出去吃饭的次数增加,一定要吃海鲜么?

  5、双收入家庭关注饮食是否就会去吃海鲜?“海鲜”和“饮食健康”是否是相同概念?

  6、缺少哪些必要条件才可以判断餐馆会盈利?

 

 填空等价机经

  1. Whether the network renews the latest pilot series ____ the critical assumption that the audience will not only empathize with a male protagonist very different from it, but will continue to do so once he begins to commit acts that are dearly reprehensible.

  A. invites

  B. supports

  C. stems from

  D. indulges in

  E. hinges upon

  答案:E

  解析:网络要丌要更新这个最新电视剧叏决于一个关键假设,那就是观众是不是会模仿不好的行为。

  invite:邀请;support:支持;stem from:因为; indulges in:沉溺于;hinge upon:依赖于。这里要表达叏决于,所以选择 hinge upon。

  2. Because reading on the Web entails quickly scanning and sorting through a deluge of information, many wonder if our level of engagement with the text has been (i) _____ or if the ability to read closely and carefully is one that can be(ii) _____ if we simply spend more time immersed in a book.

  Blank (i) Blank (ii)

  A. irreparably compromised D. fully reactivated

  B. tentatively disrupted E. further degraded

  C. permanently restored F. summarily disregarded

  答案:AD

  解析:因为网上阅读要求快速筛选大量信息,许多人会好奇我们阅读课本的能力是会永进下降了,还是说稍微花一点时间读书又会恢复了。

  irreparably compromised:丌能挽回地发差了;tentatively disrupted:暂时被破坏了;permanently restored:永久恢复;这里要表达永进下降,也就是 irreparably compromised。

  Fully reactivated:完全再激活;further degraded:迚一步降级;summarily disregarded立刻忽视。这里要表达马上能力又会回来,所以选项 fully activated

  3. Managers who categorically squelch insights from low-tiered employees run the obvious hazard of (i) _____ creativity; conversely, these very same managers are more likely to (ii) _____ any ideas that flow down from the top brass.

  Blank (i) Blank (ii)

  A. fomenting D. unquestioningly embrace

  B. smothering E. arbitrarily denounce

  C. sparking F. conditionally approve

  答案:B D

  解析:忽视底层员工见解的经理可能会打击创造力,但就也是这些人丌管领导说什么都会支持。

  foment:煽动;smother:抑制;spark:激励;要表达打击创造力,所以选择 smothering

  unquestioningly embrace:无条件支持;arbitrarily denounce:随意谴责;conditionally

  approve 有条件地支持。要表示说什么都会支持,所以选择 unquestioningly embrace。

  4. Though the CEO was not in accordance with the board’s decision to reward employees with a larger than expected annual bonus, she was hardly one to_____ workers their compensation.

  A. allow

  B. begrudge

  C. deny

  D. indulge

  E. grant

  F. entrust

  答案:B.C

  解析:虽然 CEO 丌同意给员工更多奖金,但是 CEO 还是会给员工奖金的。

  allow:允许;begrudge:吝啬;deny:剥夺;indulge:纴容;grant:给予;entrust:委托。

  本来应该是会给员工奖励,因为有 hardly 做修饰,所以要选否定动词,表示不会给,也就是选项 B.C.

  5. A _____wit, Noel Coward could elicit laughs in a variety of ways-- through his musical compositions, theater plays, and numerous acting roles.

  A. somber

  B. besotted

  C. secular

  D. versatile

  E. uniform

  F. protean

  答案:D.E

  解析:Noel Coward 可以用各种方式引观众笑。

  somber:忧郁的;besotted:愚蠢的;secular:非宗教的;versatile:多才多艺的;uniform:一致的;protean:发化多端的。Noel Coward 可以用多种方式让别人笑,说明他是有很多面的,也就是选项 D.E.

  6. While the kitchen may be free of the toxins polluting the outdoors, certain cooking implements, when heated at high temperatures, can release_____vapors.

  A. rancid

  B. noxious

  C. evanescent

  D. targeted

  E. unorthodox

  F. dangerous

  答案:B.F

  解析:

  虽然厨房可能没有可以污染室外的毒素,但是某些烹饪工具高温时会释放有毒的蒸汽。

  rancid:腐败发质的;noxious:有毒的;evanescent:容易消散的;targeted:定向的;unorthodox:非正统的;dangerous:危险的。要表示有毒,所以选择 B.F.

 

  数学机经

  1. Each week a salesperson receives a commission that is equal to 12 percent of the first $500 of sales plus 20 percent of additional sales. If the salesperson received a commission of $380 last week, what was the total amount of the sales that the salesperson made last week?

  A. $1,600

  B. $1,660

  C. $1,860

  D. $2,000

  E. $2,100

  答案:E

  解析:$500*12%=$60; $380-$60=$320; $320/0.2=$1600; $1600+$500=$2100

  2. 已知 x ≠ 0,

  Quantity A: x^2

  Quantity B: x(x+5)

  A. Quantity A is greater.

  B. Quantity B is greater.

  C. The two quantities are equal

  D. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  答案:D

  解析:如果 x > 0, 则 B > A; 如果 x < 0, 则 B < A,由于 x 值无法确定,因此两者大小无从比较,所以选 D。

  3. If x< y, which of the following must be true?

  A. 2x< y

  B. 2x> y

  C. x2< y2

  D. 2x-y< y

  E. 2x-y< 2xy

  答案:D

  解析:D 项不等式变化可得2x<2y,也就是条件的 x

  4. The table shows the frequency distribution of the random variable X. What is the median of the distribution of the Value X?

  A. 1.0

  B. 1.8

  C. 2.0

  D. 2.5

  E. 3.0

  答案:3

  解析:题干问 X 这组数据的中位数。根据右侧的频率可知,总共出现了 73 个数字,所以中位数应该是第 37 个数字,所以中位数是 3。

  5. According to a tax rate formula for a certain year, the amount of tax owed by an individual whose annual income was between $31,850 and $77,100 was equal to a base tax of $4,386 plus 24 percent of the annual income that exceeded $31,850.According to this formula, what was the amount of tax owed by an individual whose annual income that year was $42,000?

  答案:6822

  解析:题干问,某一年个人收入在$31,850 到$77,100 之间的税收计算方式为$4,386 加上超出$31,850 部分的 24%。问收入为$42,000 的个人这一年需缴纳多少税?所以我们可以得到所缴税的计算方式=4386+24%*(42000-31850)=6822.

 

 阅读逻辑机经

  短篇阅读

  Although passenger pigeons, now extinct, were abundant in eighteenth-and nineteenth-century America, archaeological studies at twelfth-century Cahokian sites in the present-day United States examined household food trash and found that traces of passenger pigeon were quite rare. Given that the sites were close to a huge passenger pigeon roost documented by John James Audubon in the nineteenth century and that Cahokians consumed almost every other animal protein source available, the archaeologist conducting the studies concluded the passenger pigeon population had once been very limited before increasing dramatically in post-Columbian America. Other archaeologists have criticized those conclusions on the grounds that passenger pigeon bones would not be likely to be preserved. But all the archaeological projects found plenty of bird bones--and even some tiny bones from fish.

  The author of the passage mentions "tiny bones from fish" primarily in order to

  A. Explain why traces of passenger pigeon are rare at Cahokian sites

  B. Support a claim about the wide variety of animal proteins in the Cahokian diet

  C. Provide evidence that confirms a theory about the extinction of the passenger pigeon

  D. Cast doubt on the conclusion reached by the archaeologists who conducted the studies discussed in the passage

  E. Counter an objection to an interpretation of the data obtained from Cahokian sites

  答案:C

  解析:定位至文中最后一行,句子跟在转折连词 But 后,But all the archaeological projects found plenty of bird bones—and even some tiny bones from fish,不之前提及的passenger pigeon bones would not be likely to be preserved 意思相反。

  长篇阅读

  In 1995 the Galileo spacecraft captured data about Jupiter's atmosphere--namely,the absence of most of the predicted atmospheric water--that challenged prevailing theories about Jupiter's structure. The unexpectedness of this finding fits a larger pattern in which theories about planetary composition and dynamics have failed to predict the realities discovered through space exploration. Instead of "normal planets" whose composition could be predicted by theory, the planets populating our solar system are unique individuals whose chemical and tectonic identities were created through numerous contingent events. One implication of this is that although the universe undoubtedly holds other planetary systems, the duplication of the sequence that produced our solar system and the development of life on Earth is highly unlikely.

  Recently planetary scientists have suggested that the external preconditions for the development of Earth's biosphere probably included four paramount contingencies.First, a climate conducive to life on Earth depends upon the extraordinarily narrow orbital parameters that define a continuously habitable zone where water can exist in a liquid state. If Earth's orbit were only 5 percent smaller than it is, temperatures during the early stages of Earth's history would have been high enough to vaporize the oceans. If the Earth-Sun distance were as little as 1 percent larger, run away glaciations on Earth about 2 billion years ago would have caused the oceans to freeze and remain frozen to this day.

  Second, Jupiter's enormous mass prevents most Sun-bound comets from penetrating the inner solar system. It has been estimated that without this shield,Earth would have experienced bombardment by comet-sized impactors a thousand times more frequently than has actually been recorded during geological time.Even if Earth's surface were not actually sterilized by this bombardment, it is unlikely that any but the most primitive life-forms could have survived. This suggests that only planetary systems containing both terrestrial planets like Earth and gas giants like Jupiter might be capable of sustaining complex life-forms.

  Third, the gravitational shield of the giant outer planets, while highly efficient, must occasionally fail to protect Earth. Paradoxically, while the temperatures required for liquid water exist only in the inner solar system, the key building blocks of life,including water itself, occur primarily beyond the asteroid belt. Thus the evolution of life has depended on a frequency of cometary impacts sufficient to convey water,as well as carbon and nitrogen, from these distant regions of the solar system to Earth while stopping short of an impact magnitude that would destroy the atmosphere and oceans.

  Finally, Earth's unique and massive satellite, the Moon, plays a crucial role in stabilizing the obliquity of Earth's rotational axis. This obliquity creates the terrestrial seasonality so important to the evolution and diversity of life. Mars, in contrast, has wildly oscillating tilt and chaotic seasonality, while Venus, rotating slowly backward, has virtually no seasonality at all.

  1. The passage is primarily concerned with

  A. Enumerating conditions that may have been necessary for a particular development

  B. Outlining the conditions under which scientists may be able to predict certain events

  C. Explaining how a particular finding affected scientists ' understanding of a phenomenon

  D. Suggesting reasons why a particular outcome was more likely to occur than other possible outcomes

  E. Assessing the relative significance of factors that contributed to a particular occurrence

  答案:C

  解析:根据文章第一段内容,可知推出了一个 finding,后面都是具体介绍这个収现的,所以围绕的中心是 C。

  2. It can be inferred from the passage that the "planetary scientists" would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements concerning the development of complex life forms on Earth?

  A. It might have occurred earlier in Earth's history if cometary impacts had been less frequent than they were.

  B. It could have occurred if Earth's orbit were 1 percent larger than it is but not if Earth's orbit were 5 percent smaller.

  C. It probably follows a pattern common on other terrestrial planets that occupy planetary systems containing gas giants.

  D. Its dependence on the effect that Jupiter's gravitational shield has on Earth was difficult to recognize prior to 1995.

  E. It has been contingent on conditions elsewhere in Earth's solar system as well as on conditions on Earth itself.

  答案:E

  解析:题干问 planetary scientists 最有可能同意哪个观点,而丏是不 the development of complex life forms on Earth 有关,定位至第二段开头处开始阅读,运用排除法得出答案。

  3. The author of the passage most likely mentions Mars' "oscillating tilt" primarily in order to

  A. Provide evidence for a proposition about the potential effects of cometary impacts

  B. Emphasize the absence from our solar system of "normal planets"

  C. Contrast the rotational axis of Mars with that of Venus

  D. Characterize the role of other planets in the solar system in earth's development

  E. Emphasize the importance of the Moon to the development of life on Earth

  答案:E

  解析:题干问为何提及Mars会震荡倾斜,定位至最后一段会収现后文提及了Venus不Mars是相反的,因此答案选 C。

  逻辑阅读

  Anaerobic glycolysis is a process in which energy is produced, without oxygen,through the breakdown of muscle glycogen into lactic acid and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy provider. The amount of energy that can be produced anaerobically is a function of the amount of glycogen present—in all vertebrates about 0.5 percent of their muscles’ wet weight. Thus the anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the size of the animal. If, for example, some predators had attacked a 100-ton dinosaur, normally torpid, the dinosaur would have been able to generate almost instantaneously, via anaerobic glycolysis, the energy of 3,000 humans at maximum oxidative metabolic energy production.

  The passage's suggestion that the total anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the vertebrate's size is based on which of the following assumption?

  A. larger vertebrates conserve more energy than smaller vertebrates

  B. larger vertebrates use less oxygen per unit weight than smaller vertebrates

  C. the ability of a vertebrate to consume food is a function of its size

  D. the amount of muscle tissue in a vertebrate is directly related to its size

  E. the size of a vertebrate is proportional to the quantity of energy it can utilize

  答案:E

  解析:文本是关于无氧糖酵解产生能量的过程,丏提出动物体积越大,所产生的能量储备也就越多。以恐龙为例,说明其遭遇攻击所能产生的能量之巨大。题干中问“the total anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the vertebrate’s size”这一论点是根据哪一条假定推断出来的,通读选项丌难得出 E。

 

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