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名师指导:GMAT/GRE阅读科学备考法(5)

2014-05-28 17:00 小马过河 fengsaiyun

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摘要:名师指导:GMAT/GRE阅读科学备考法(5)。下面通过讲解一篇GRE阅读和GMAT阅读文章来向大家展示如何科学的理解阅读GRE/GMAT文章。同学们可适当进行了解。

  下面通过一篇新GRE阅读文章来向大家说明新GRE阅读文章科学复习方法,一起来看一下吧。

  GMAT/GRE阅读文章第五篇:

  A “scientistic” view of language was dominant among philosophers and linguists who affected to develop a scientific analysis of human thought and behavior in the early part of this century.

  句子主干是?

  View was dominant

  既然有view出现了观点,那是谁的观点,是否在下文被支持或折转了?

  Philosophers and linguists的观点

  Philosophers and linguists研究了什么?

  Human thought and behavior

  Under the force of this view, it was perhaps inevitable that the art of rhetoric should pass from the status of being regarded as of questionable worth (because although it might be both a source of pleasure and a means to urge people to right action, it might also be a means to distort truth and a source of misguided action) to the status of being wholly condemned.

  This view看到指代要明确指代的对象是什么?

  “Scientistic” view

  “it was perhaps inevitable” 中的it指代的是什么?

  That引导的从句:the art of rhetoric should pass from …

  Rhetoric的作用变得重要了还是不重要了,under the force of this view?

  Pass from the status of being regarded as of questionable worth to the status of being wholly condemned. 地位从不知道是否有价值变到了完全没有被谴责。

  Questionable worth的原因是什么?

  括号中的句子:即使rhetoric可以使人们愉悦以及做出正确的选择,但是它扭曲了事实,并且会误导行为。

  所以在这里,this view认为the art of rhetoric怎么样?哪个词可以体现情感色彩?

  不好。Wholly condemned

  If people are regarded only as machines guided by logic, as they were by these “scientistic” thinkers, rhetoric is likely to be held in low regard; for the most obvious truth about rhetoric is that it speaks to the whole person.

  Only在这里的作用强调了哪些人?

  Guided by logic = guided by these “scientistic” thinkers

  这句话和前一句话的关系是?

  不是完全的顺承是让步。因为前文说的是修辞的艺术是没啥作用的这里说:如果人们完全是理性逻辑的机器,那么修辞就是没有用的。可是人们是only as machines guided by logic嘛?不是,文章中用了if这个假设。

  所以这句话的观点是?

  The most obvious truth about rhetoric is that it speaks to the whole person.

  修辞还是有用的(让步之后必有转折),因为它是将给一个完整的人的(和上文的only as machines guided by logic形成转折)。

  It presents its arguments first to the person as a rational being, because persuasive discourse, if honestly conceived, always has a basis in reasoning. Logical argument is the plot, as it were, of any speech or essay that is respectfully intended to persuade people.

  It在这里指代的是什么?

  “scientistic” view,即认为rhetoric 没有用的观点。

  这个观点是什么?

  认为人们应当具有逻辑思维,具有基本的推理。逻辑论证是任何试图劝说人们的必不可少的部分。

  读到这里我们应该问自己的是什么?

  “scientistic” view应该是认为逻辑要比修辞强的,所以读到这要自觉拿起笔记录两个观点分别的特征,是否有观点支持或反驳。

  这里的rational, reasoning, logical argument都是站在 “scientistic” view这边的特点。

  Yet it is a characterizing feature of rhetoric that it goes beyond this and appeals to the parts of our nature that are involved in feeling, desiring, acting, and suffering. It recalls relevant instances of the emotional reactions of people to circumstances—real or fictional—that are similar to our own circumstances.

  看到了yet知道要转折了,转折的是哪一个方面?

  转折开始讨论rhetoric是怎样的一种的方法。所以从这里要开始记录rhetoric的特点。

  这里的this指代的是什么?

  指代的上文的logical argument is plot…

  那么我们需要记下来的rhetoric的特点是什么?

  没有logical argument,唤起我们的feeling, desiring, acting, and suffering;以及唤起我们的emotional reactions

  至此,文章就是想去描述 “scientistic” view对于rhetoric的鄙视,通过对比 “scientistic” view和rhetoric两种方法的不同。

  Such is the purpose of both historical accounts and fables in persuasive discourse: they indicate literally or symbolically how people may react emotionally, with hope or fear, to particular circumstances. A speech attempting to persuade people can achieve little unless it takes into account the aspect of their being related to such hopes and fears.

  这句话和上一句的关系是?

  顺承,解释说明上一句中的rhetoric的特点。利用人们的not logical反应来去说服人们。

  哪些词是需要我们记录下来的特点?

  Emotionally,(这里的hope or fear都是属于emotionally)。

  所以rhetoric能够起作用是因为?

  人们并非只是理性的,逻辑的(上文中提到的 “scientistic” thinkers)。人们还有情感,所以rhetoric 是利用人们非理性的部分,起到persuade的作用。

  划线部分的句子的意思是?

  除非人们能够设身处地的去体会这样的希望和恐惧,不然一个演讲是起不到说服人们的作用的。

  第二段开始

  Rhetoric, then, is addressed to human beings living at particular times and in particular places.

  继续上文的rhetoric的作用。

  告诉我们rhetoric的作用就是将人们放置于一个时期或环境中,使得人们可以有设身处地的感受,从而起到说服人们的目的。

  From the point of view of rhetoric, we are not merely logical thinking machines, creatures abstracted from time and space. The study of rhetoric should therefore be considered the most humanistic of the humanities, since rhetoric is not directed only to our rational selves.

  本句中划线的部分是那种方法的特点?

  Rhetoric的特点,认为人们不仅仅是脱离时间和空间的逻辑思维机器。

  第二句中有哪些词是我们应当记下来归到rhetoric的特征里的?

  Humanistic,not rational

  It takes into account what the “scientistic” view leaves out (leave out: v.省去, 遗漏, 不考虑). 划线的it指代的是?

  Rhetoric view

  因为和 “scientistic” view的不同,所以rhetoric view考虑到了 “scientistic” view没有考虑到的部分。

  If it is a weakness to harbor feelings, then rhetoric may be thought of as dealing in weakness.

  这个句子的意思是?

  保护情感如果是一种弱点的话,正是因为rhetoric导致的。

  在这个句子中feeling和rhetoric的关系是?

  是由于rhetoric导致了feeling被harbor

  看到这句话好像是说rhetoric不是那么的好。

  But those who reject the idea of rhetoric because they believe it deals in lies and who at the same time hope to move people to action, must either be liars themselves or be very naive; pure logic has never been a motivating force unless it has been subordinated to human purposes, feelings, and desires, and thereby ceased to be pure logic.

  But告诉我们,此句和上句的关系应该是转折的。所以我应该要找哪些部分转折了?

  本句的主干是什么?

  Those must either be liars themselves or be very naïve。

  哪些人是骗子和很傻很天真呢?

  Who reject … and who at the same time…

  觉得rhetoric不好的人,同事又希望说服别人的人。

  这里的hope to move people to action等同于什么?

  Persuade them

  情感色彩,对于rhetoric的观点转折了。

  划线部分不是新概念,等同于什么?

  Rhetoric

  哪里体现出来了对rhetoric 的态度。

  Pure logic has never been a motivating force…仅有logic是不足够的,除非还有rhetoric

  本篇文章提供了两种观点: “scientistic” view和rhetoric view,两种观点是对立的。并且 “scientistic” view认为rhetoric不咋滴。然后分别别墅了两种方法的特点。最后通过比较,论述,发现仅有 “scientistic” view是不够的。所以驳斥了rhetoric view不好的观点。

  小马过河编辑为大家整理了新GRE阅读科学的备考方法,供各位新GRE考生进行参考。

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