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2018年5月13日GRE阅读机经新增70篇

2018-12-14 10:57 三立在线 admin

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摘要:Chapter 1 Passage 1 A divide between aesthetic and technical considerations has played a crucial role in mapmaking and cartographic scholarship. Since nineteenth century cartographers, for instance, understood themselves as technicians who did not care about visual effects, while others saw themselves as landscape painters. That dichotomy structured the discipline of the history of cartography. Until the 1980s, in what Blakemore and Harley called

   Chapter 1

  Passage 1

  A divide between aesthetic and technical considerations has played a crucial role in mapmaking and cartographic scholarship. Since nineteenth century cartographers, for instance, understood themselves as technicians who did not care about visual effects, while others saw themselves as landscape painters. That dichotomy structured the discipline of the history of cartography. Until the 1980s, in what Blakemore and Harley called “the Old is Beautiful Paradigm,” scholars largely focused on maps made before 1800, marveling at their beauty and sometimes regretting the decline of the pre-technical age. Early mapmaking was considered art while modern cartography was located within the realm of engineering utility. Alpers, however, has argued that this boundary would have puzzled mapmakers in the seventeenth century, because they considered themselves to be visual engineers.

  1. According to the passage, Alpers would say that the assumptions underlying the “paradigm” were

  A. inconsistent with the way some mapmakers prior to 1800 understand their own work

  B. dependent on a seventeenth-century conception of mapmaking visual engineering

  C. unconcerned with the difference between the aesthetic and technical questions of mapmaking

  D. insensitive to divisions among cartographers working in the period after 1800

  E. supported by the demonstrable technical superiority of mapmaking made after 1800

  2. It can be inferred from the passage that, beginning in the 1980s, historians of cartography

  A. placed greater emphasis on the beauty of maps made after 1800

  B. expanded their range of study to include more material created after 1800

  C. grew more sensitive to the way mapmakers prior to 1800 conceived of their work

  D. came to see the visual details of maps as aesthetic objects rather than practical cartographic aids

  E. reduced the attention they paid to the technical aspects of mapmaking

  Passage 2

  Most mammals reach sexual maturity when their growth rates are in decline, whereas humans experience a growth spurt during adolescence. Whether apes experience an adolescent growth

  spurt is still undecided. In the 1950s, data on captive chimpanzees collected by James Gavan appeared devoid of evidence of an adolescent growth spurt in these apes. In a recent reanalysis of Gavan’s data, however, zoologist Elizabeth Watts has found that as chimpanzees reach sexual maturity, the growth rate of their limbs accelerates. Most biologists, however, are skeptical that this is a humanlike adolescent growth spurt. While the human adolescent growth spurt is physically obvious and affects virtually the entire body, the chimpanzee’s increased growth rate is detectable only through sophisticated mathematical analysis. Moreover, according to scientist Holly Smith, the growth rate increase in chimpanzees begins when 86% of full skeletal growth has been attained, whereas human adolescence generally commences when 77 percent of full skeletal growth has occurred.

  1. Which of the following best describes the main idea of the passage?

  A. Researchers have long disagreed about whether data collected in the 1950s indicate that chimpanzees and other apes experience an adolescent growth spurt.

  B. Research data collected on chimpanzees living in captivity are inconclusive with respect to chimpanzees living in the wild.

  C. The notion that apes do not experience an adolescent growth spurt has been confirmed by research conducted since.

  D. Although the idea that apes experience an adolescent growth has received some support, most biologists remain unconvinced.

  E. Although researchers agree that chimpanzees do not experience an adolescent growth spurt, they are divided in their opinions of whether this is true of other apes.

  2. The passage mentions which of the following as one of the reasons why most biologists remain skeptical that chimpanzees experience a humanlike adolescent growth spurt?

  A. Chimpanzees do not experience a demonstrable increase in growth rate until they are fully sexually mature.

  B. The increase in growth rate that chimpanzees undergo at sexual maturity is less apparent than that of humans.

  C. The increase in growth rate once regarded as a humanlike adolescent growth spurt in chimpanzees is too sporadic to be regarded as significant.

  D. Not all chimpanzees undergo a calculable growth spurt.

  E. Watt’s approach to analyzing data is considered to be highly unorthodox.

  3. The passage suggests which of the following about the adolescent growth spurt that takes place in humans?

  A. Its primary effects are found in parts of the body other than the limbs.

  B. It is generally completed by the time 77 percent of full skeletal growth is attained.

  C. It is normally detectable without the assistance of sophisticated mathematical analysis.

  D. The rate of growth is much faster at the beginning of puberty than at any other time.

  E. The estimated growth rate varies depending on the methods of measurement that are used.

 

 

 

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