文章编号 Passage 2
As it was published in 1935, Mules and Men, Zora Neale Hurston's landmark collection of folktales, may not have been the book that its author first had in mind. In this anthropological study, Hurston describes in detail the people who tell the stories, often even inserting herself into the storytelling scene. Evidently, however, Hurston had prepared another version, a manuscript that was recently discovered and published after having been forgotten since 1929. This version differs from Mules and Men in that it simply records stories, with no descriptive or interpretive information.
While we cannot know for certain why Hurston’s original manuscript went unpublished during her lifetime, it may have been because publishers wanted something more than a transcription of tales. Contemporary novelist and critic John Edgar Wideman has described Black literature as the history of a writing that sought to escape its frame, in other words, as the effort of Black writers to present the stories of Black people without having to have a mediating voice to explain the stories to a non-Black audience. In this, Hurston may have been ahead of her time.
1. Select the sentence that suggests a possible reason why Hurston wrote the version of Mules and Men that was published in 1935.
2. The passage suggests that Hurston may have done which of the following in preparing her original version?
A. Discussed her mode of presentation with her publisher before writing the first draft, in order to reduce the possibility of misunderstanding.
B. Shortened her presentation of the stories to the bare minimum in order to be able to present more folklore material.
C. Put it aside for several decades in order to maximize its potential audience when it was published.
D. Reluctantly agreed to reshape it in order to take out various elements with which her publisher had been dissatisfied.
E. Chose not to include editorial commentary, in order to present the stories on their own terms.
答案：1. While we cannot know for certain why Hurston’s original manuscript went unpublished during her lifetime, it may have been because publishers wanted something more than a transcription of tales.
文章编号 Passage 8
An alarming number of Mediterranean monk seals, an endangered species, have recently died. Postmortem analysis showed the presence of an as yet unidentified virus, as well as evidence of a know bacterial toxin. Seawater samples from the area where the seals died did contain unusually high concentrations of the toxic bacterium. Therefore, although both viruses and bacterial toxins can kill seals, it is more likely that these deaths were the result of the bacterial toxin.
Which of the following, if true, provides additional evidence to support the conclusion?
A. Viruses are much more difficult to identify in postmortem analysis than bacteria are.
B. Mediterranean monk seals are the only species of seal in the area where the bacterium was found.
C. The bacterium is almost always present in the water in at least small concentrations.
D. Nearly all the recent deaths were among adult seals, but young seals are far more susceptible to viruses than are adult seals.
E. Several years ago, a large number of monk seals died in the same area as a result of exposure to a different bacterial toxin.
文章编号 Passage 14
Carla L. Peterson’s Doers of the Word（1997），a study of African American women speakers and writers from 1830-1880, is an important addition to scholarship on nineteenth-century African American women. Its scope resembles that of Frances Smith Fosters 1993 study, but its approach is quite different. For Foster, the Black women who came to literary voice in nineteenth-century America were claiming their rights as United States citizens, denying that anything should disqualify them from full membership in an enlightened national polity. Peterson sees these same women as having been fundamentally estranged from the nation by a dominant culture unsympathetic to Black women, and by a Black intelligentsia whose male view of race concerns left little room for Black female intellect.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
1. The passage indicates that Peterson identifies which of the following as obstacles faced by the women included in her study?
A. the attitudes of Black male intellectuals toward female intellectual work
B. the discriminatory attitudes faced by Black women in nineteenth-century America as a whole
C. disagreements among Black women speakers and writers themselves about the impact of the Black intelligentsia
2. It can be inferred that Peterson’s study and Fosters study are similar with respect to which of the following?
A. the writers that each takes up for examination
B. the degree to which each has influenced other scholars
C. the assumptions that each brings to nineteenth-century African American literature
D. their analysis of the nineteenth-century Black intelligentsia
E. their interpretation of nineteenth-century Americas dominant culture
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