文章编号 Passage 2
As it was published in 1935, Mules and Men, Zora Neale Hurston's landmark collection of folktales, may not have been the book that its author first had in mind. In this anthropological study, Hurston describes in detail the people who tell the stories, often even inserting herself into the storytelling scene. Evidently, however, Hurston had prepared another version, a manuscript that was recently discovered and published after having been forgotten since 1929. This version differs from Mules and Men in that it simply records stories, with no descriptive or interpretive information.
While we cannot know for certain why Hurston’s original manuscript went unpublished during her lifetime, it may have been because publishers wanted something more than a transcription of tales. Contemporary novelist and critic John Edgar Wideman has described Black literature as the history of a writing that sought to escape its frame, in other words, as the effort of Black writers to present the stories of Black people without having to have a mediating voice to explain the stories to a non-Black audience. In this, Hurston may have been ahead of her time.
1. Select the sentence that suggests a possible reason why Hurston wrote the version of Mules and Men that was published in 1935.
2. The passage suggests that Hurston may have done which of the following in preparing her original version?
A. Discussed her mode of presentation with her publisher before writing the first draft, in order to reduce the possibility of misunderstanding.
B. Shortened her presentation of the stories to the bare minimum in order to be able to present more folklore material.
C. Put it aside for several decades in order to maximize its potential audience when it was published.
D. Reluctantly agreed to reshape it in order to take out various elements with which her publisher had been dissatisfied.
E. Chose not to include editorial commentary, in order to present the stories on their own terms.
答案：1. While we cannot know for certain why Hurston’s original manuscript went unpublished during her lifetime, it may have been because publishers wanted something more than a transcription of tales.
文章编号 Passage 8
An alarming number of Mediterranean monk seals, an endangered species, have recently died. Postmortem analysis showed the presence of an as yet unidentified virus, as well as evidence of a know bacterial toxin. Seawater samples from the area where the seals died did contain unusually high concentrations of the toxic bacterium. Therefore, although both viruses and bacterial toxins can kill seals, it is more likely that these deaths were the result of the bacterial toxin.
Which of the following, if true, provides additional evidence to support the conclusion?
A. Viruses are much more difficult to identify in postmortem analysis than bacteria are.
B. Mediterranean monk seals are the only species of seal in the area where the bacterium was found.
C. The bacterium is almost always present in the water in at least small concentrations.
D. Nearly all the recent deaths were among adult seals, but young seals are far more susceptible to viruses than are adult seals.
E. Several years ago, a large number of monk seals died in the same area as a result of exposure to a different bacterial toxin.
文章编号 Passage 16
Currently, Sulandian television journalists are twice as likely as other workers to support the Blue Party, and Sulandian journalism students are significantly more likely to support the Blue Party than working television journalists are. Therefore, assuming that these students do not change their political affiliations as they get older, the disparity between the political affiliations of Sulandia’s television journalists and those of the rest of the working population will increase as current Sulandian journalism students enter the profession.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. Few of the television journalists currently working in Sulandia were trained in Sulandian journalism schools.
B. Journalists in Sulandia whose political affiliations differ from those of the general population tend to allow their political views to affect the way they report news about politics.
C. Most of the television journalists currently working in Sulandia who support the Blue Party also supported the Blue Party when they were students.
D. Support for the Blue party is not significantly less common among those current Sulaidan journalism students who intend to become television journalists than it is among current Sulandian journalism students as a whole.
E. Classes in Sulandian journalism schools are not taught mainly by working Sulandian journalists.
文章编号 Passage 18
Massive projectiles striking much larger bodies create various kinds of craters,
including multi-ring basins–the largest geologic features observed on planets and moons. In such collisions, the impactor is completely destroyed and its material is incorporated into the larger body. Collison’s between bodies of comparable size, on the other hand, have very different consequences: one or both bodies might be entirely smashed, with mass from one or both the bodies redistributed among new objects formed from the fragments. Such a titanic collision between Earth and a Mars-size impactor may have given rise to Earth’s Moon.
The Earth-Moon system has always been perplexing. Earth is the only one of the inner planets with a large satellite, the orbit of which is neither in the equatorial plane of Earth nor in the plane in which the other planets lie. The Moon’s mean density is much lower than that of Earth but is about the same as that of Earth’s mantle. This similarity in density has long prompted speculation that the Moon split away from a rapidly rotating Earth, but this idea founders on two observations. In order to spin off the Moon, Earth would have had to rotate so fast that a day would have lasted less than three hours. Science offers no plausible explanation of how it could have slowed to its current rotational rate from that speed. Moreover, the Moon’s composition, though similar to that of Earth’s mantle, is not a precise match. Theorizing a titanic collision eliminates postulating a too-rapidly spinning Earth and accounts for the Moon’s peculiar composition. In a titanic collision model, the bulk of the Moon would have formed from a combination of material from the impactor and Earth’s mantle. Most of the earthly component would have been in the form of melted or vaporized matter. The difficulty in recondensing this vapor in Earth’s orbit, and its subsequent loss to the vacuum of outer space, might account for the observed absence in lunar rocks of certain readily vaporized compounds and elements.
Unusual features of some other planets might also be explained by such impacts. Mercury is known to have a high density in comparison with other rocky planets. A titanic impact could have stripped away a portion of its rocky mantle, leaving behind a metallic core whose density is out of proportion with the original ratio of rock to metal. A massive, glancing blow to Venus might have given it its anomalously slow spin and reversed direction of rotation. Such conjectures are tempting, but, since no early planet was immune to titanic impacts, they could be used indiscriminately to explain away in a cavalier fashion every unusual planetary characteristic; still, we may now be beginning to discern the true role of titanic impacts in planetary history.
1. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the collisions mentioned in the highlighted sentence?
A. They occur less frequently than do titanic collisions.
B. They occur between bodies of comparable size.
C. They occur primarily between planet-sized bodies.
D. They result in the complete destruction of the impacting body.
E. They result in mass being redistributed among newly formed objects.
2. The author of the passage asserts which of the following about titanic collision models?
A. Such models are conclusive with respect to certain anomalies within the solar system, but leave numerous other anomalies unexplained.
B. Such models are more likely than are earlier models to account for the formation of multiring basins.
C. Such models may be particularly useful in explaining what happens when the impacting bodies involved are of highly dissimilar mean densities.
D. Such models have been tested to such a degree that they are quickly reaching the point where they can be considered definitive.
E. Such models are so tempting that they run the risk of being used indiscriminately to explain unusual planetary features.
3. The passage suggests that which of the following is true of the cited compounds and elements?
A. They were created by reactions that took place during a titanic collision.
B. They were supplied by an impactor that collided with Earth.
C. They were once present on the Moon but were subsequently vaporized.
D. They are rarely found on planet-size bodies in our solar system.
E. They are present on Earth but not on the Moon.
4. In the second paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with
A. arguing in favor of a particular theory about the formation of the Earth-Moon system.
B. summarizing conventional theories about the formation of the earth-Moon system.
C. anticipating and responding to criticisms of a particular theory about the formation of the Earth-Moon system.
D. explaining why the Earth-Moon system is considered scientifically perplexing.
E. questioning an assumption underlying one theory about the formation of the Earth-Moon system.
1.D 2.E 3.E 4.A
文章编号 Passage 30
One reason researchers have long believed that Mars never enjoyed an extensive period of warm and wet climate is that much of the surface not covered by wind-borne dust appear to be composed of unweathered material. If water flowed for an extended period, researchers reasoned, it should have altered and weathered the volcanic minerals, creating clays or other oxidized, hydrated phases (minerals that incorporate water molecules in their crystal structure) .
It turns out, though, that the scientists were not looking closely enough. New high-resolution mapping data and close-up surface studies have revealed clays and other hydrated minerals in many regions. The clay deposits are scattered all over, in ancient volcanic surfaces and heavily cratered highland regions, some of which have apparently been exposed by erosion only recently.
1. According to the passage, scientists are able to discover weathered material on the Martian surface because they have benefited from which of the following?
A. a new method to analyze volcanic craters created on the Martian surface.
B. an improved ability to detect hydrated materials on the Martian surface
C. a more sophisticated understanding of the effect of wind-borne dust on the Martian surface
D. a decision to look for water primarily in heavily cratered highland regions.
E. a better understanding of how erosion might affect clay deposits.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
2. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would agree with which of the following statements regarding the reasoning discussed in the highlighted sentence?
A. It provides the basis for an explanation of why water on Mars has been difficult to find until recently.
B. It correctly identifies a consequence of water flowing on the Martian surface.
C. It depends on a false assumption about how water and volcanic materials interact on Mars.
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