1. There is no reason why the work of scientists has to be officially confirmed before being published. There is a system in place for the confirmation or disconfirmation of scientific findings, namely, the replication of results by other scientists. Poor scientific work on the part of any one scientists, which can include anything from careless reporting practices to fraud, is not harmful. It will be exposed and rendered harmless when other scientists conduct experiments and obtain disconfirmatory results.
Which one of the following, if true, would weaken the argument?
A. Scientific experiments can go unchallenged for many years before they are replicated.
B. Most scientists work in universities, where their work is submitted to peer review before publication.
C. Most scientists are under pressure to make their work accessible to the scrutiny of replication.
D. In scientific experiments, careless reporting is more common than fraud.
E. Most scientists work as part of a team rather than alone.
思路：作者说no必要有一个新的出版confirmation系统，因为Poor scientific work is not harmful，other scientists conduct experiments来正明正确的结果。A指出Scientific experiments can go unchallenged for many years，指出Poor scientific work is harmful，是weaken。
2. Governments have only one response to public criticism of socially necessary services: regulation of the activity of providing those services. But governments inevitably make the activity more expensive by regulating it, and that is particularly troublesome in these times of strained financial resources. However, since public criticism of childcare services has undermined all confidence in such services, and since such services are socially necessary, the government is certain to respond.
Which one of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?
A. The quality of child-care will improve.
B. The cost of providing child-care services will increase.
C. The government will use funding to foster advances in child-care.
D. If public criticism of policy is strongly voiced, the government is certain to respond.
E. If child-care services are not regulated, the cost of providing childcare will not increase.
B. 有效的建立了关系：government respond --- > regulation --- > make the activity
more expensive troublesome --- > troublesome in financial resources --- >cost increase. (B )
E. 是否命题, 不能得到的结论
3. Advertisers are often criticized for their unscrupulous manipulation of people’s tastes and wants. There is evidence, however, that some advertisers are motivated by moral as well as financial considerations. A particular publication decided to change its image from being a family newspaper to concentrating one sex and violence, thus appealing to a different readership. Some advertisers withdrew their advertisements from the publication, and this must have been because they morally disapproved of publishing salacious material.
Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument?
A. The advertisers switched their advertisements to other family newspapers.
B. Some advertisers switched from family newspapers to advertise in the changed publication.
C. The advertisers expected their product sales to increase if they stayed with the changed publication, but to decrease if they withdrew.
D. People who generally read family newspapers are not likely to buy newspapers that concentrate on sex and violence.
E. It was expected that the changed publication would appeal principally to those in a different income group.
B. advertisers考虑了publication转变了不同的读者群，还是financial considerations。
C. 直接举证说明原因：是为了moral，应为sales会increase if they stayed with the changed publication，但sales会decrease if they withdrew。
4. Learning how to build a nest plays an important part in the breeding success of birds. For example, Dr. Snow has recorded the success of a number of blackbirds in several successive years. He finds that birds nesting for the first time are less successful in breeding than are older birds, and also less successful than they themselves are a year later. This cannot be a mere matter of size and strength, since blackbirds, like the great majority of birds, are fully grown when they leave the nest. It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that they benefit by their nesting experience.
Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument?
A. Blackbirds build better nests than other birds.
B. The capacity of blackbirds to lay viable eggs increase with each successive trial during the first few years of reproduction.
C. The breeding success of birds nesting for the second time is greater than that of birds nesting for the first time.
D. Smaller and weaker blackbirds breed just as successfully as bigger and stronger blackbirds.
E. Up to 25 percent of all birds are killed by predators before they start to nest.
思路：结论：How to build a nest is very important.第一句话。论据：birds nesting ,不如老bird success, also less than 。。。其实就一句话，新birds没用经验nesting,所以生育成功率低。
1、断桥，论据与结论无关，即新birds nesting。。 推不出how to build a nest plays an important part in the breeding success of birds.
B. 他因，success 是与capacity 有关。
C. 无关，陷阱，把论据重新说呢一遍。The breeding success of birds nesting for the second time is greater than that of birds nesting for the first time.= He finds that birds nesting for the first time are less successful in breeding than are older birds, and also less successful than they themselves are a year later.
D. 无关，文中没有比较smaller ,weaker。Smaller, weaker birds 完全有可能知道 how to build a nest .
E. 无关，birds被杀和breeding success of birds 无关，如果是出生(breeding)的birds 被杀就有关了。
5. How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane crashes? Studies have shown that pilot error contributes to two-thirds of all such crashes. To address this problem, the airline have upgraded their training programs by increasing the hours of classroom instruction and emphasizing communication skills in the cockpit. But it is unrealistic to expect such measures to compensate for pilots’ lack of actual flying time. Therefore, the airlines should rethink their training approach to reducing commercial crashes.
Which one of the following is an assumption upon which the argument depends?
A. Training programs can eliminate pilot errors.
B. Commercial pilot routinely undergo additional training throughout their careers.
C. The number of airline crashes will decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time.
D. Lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes.
E. Communication skills are not important to pilot training programs.
思路：xxx的program 不能补充pilots’ lack of actual flying time.结论：thererfore, rethink approach to prevent commercial plane crash. 中间有思维跳跃，actual flying time 与plane crash 什么关系?
A. 削弱，program can eliminate…, so do not need rethink approach
B. 无关。题中是prevent planes crashes的training.
D. 将actual flying time 与(pilot error in) plane crashes 联系起来。对assumption取非：actual flying time is not an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes. 削弱结论。符合ETS假设定义。
Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the death rate from this disease has doubled during the past decade from its previous rate. Two possible explanations for this increase have been offered. First, the recording of deaths due to asthma has become more widespread and accurate in the past decade than it had been previously. Second, there has been an increase in urban pollution. However, since the rate of deaths due to asthma has increased dramatically even in cities with long-standing, comprehensive medical records and with little or no urban pollution, one must instead conclude that the cause of increased deaths is the use of bronchial inhalers by asthma sufferers to relieve their symptoms.
6. Each of the following, if true, provides support to the argument EXCEPT:
A. Urban populations have doubled in the past decade.
B. Records of asthma deaths are as accurate for the past twenty years as for the past ten years.
C. Evidence suggests that inhalers make the lungs more sensitive to irritation by airborne pollen.
D. By temporarily relieving the symptoms of asthma, inhalers encourage sufferers to avoid more beneficial measures.
E. Ten years ago bronchial inhalers were not available as an asthma treatment.
思路：现象：death rate doubled. 结论：the cause of increased death is ……
A. 削弱, 人口double了，支持了two possible explanations之一，反对了结论。
C. 支持结论，就是inhalers 造成的。
E. 支持，排除可以削弱的他因(eg, Ten years ago bronchial inhalers were as many as that used today. 就是削弱)。
7. Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. Urban pollution has not doubled in the past decade.
B. Doctors and patients generally ignore the role of allergies in asthma.
C. Bronchial inhalers are unsafe, even when used according to the recommended instructions.
D. The use of bronchial inhalers aggravates other diseases that frequently occur among asthma sufferers and that often lead to fatal outcomes even when the asthma itself does not.
E. Increased urban pollution, improved recording of asthma deaths, and the used of asthma deaths, and the use of bronchial inhalers are the only possible explanations of the increased death rate due to asthma.
E. 取非，除了1，2，3解释还有其他解释。典型的他因削弱，符合ETS 假设定义。
8. Advertisement: Clark brand-name parts are made for cars manufactured in this country. They satisfy all of our government automotive tests-the toughest such tests in the world. With foreign-made parts, you never know which might be reliable and which are cheap look-alikes that are poorly constructed and liable to cost you hundreds of dollars in repairs. Therefore, be smart and insist on brand-name parts by Clark for your car.
The argument requires the assumption that
A. Clark parts are available only in this country
B. foreign-made arts are not suitable for cars manufactured in this country
C. no foreign-made parts satisfy our government standards
D. parts that satisfy or government standards are not as poorly constructed as cheap foreign made parts
E. if parts are made for cars manufactured in our country, they are not poorly constructed
思路：C东东通过了G test, 所以，选C东东，不选国外东东。
C. 无关。用不用G和国外的与satisfy standards 无关。
9. Nuclear fusion is a process whereby the nuclei of atoms are joined, or “fused”, and in which energy is released. One of the by-products of fusion is helium-4 gas. A recent fusion experiment was conducted using “heavy” water contained in a sealed flask. The flask was, in turn, contained in an air-filled chamber designed to eliminate extraneous vibration. After the experiment, a measurable amount of helium-4 gas was found in the air of the chamber. The experiments cited this evidence in support of their conclusion that fusion had been achieved.
Which one of the following, if true, would cast doubt on the experimenters’ conclusion?
A. Helium-4 was not the only gas founding the experiment chamber.
B. When fusion is achieved, it normally produces several by-products, including tritium and gamma rays.
C. The amount of helium-4 found in the chamber’s air did not exceed the amount of helium-4 that is found in ordinary air.
D. Helium-4 gas rapidly breaks down, forming ordinary helium gas after a few hours.
E. Nuclear fusion reactions are characterized by the release of large amount of heat.
思路：FACT: nuclear fusion产生H-4. 现象：某个试验有he-4,结论：试验中有nuclear fusion.
1. 断桥。有h4推不出nuclear fusion，不过本题无法断桥，因为这是个Fact.
C. 他因。试验中h4 是本来就有的。
D. 无关，本句中心是helium gas 不是h-4。Helium 属于文中没用提的东东，虽然都是helium.
10. Every photograph, because it involves the light rays that something emits hitting film, must in some obvious sense be true. But because it could always have been made to show things differently than it does, it cannot express the whole truth and, in that sense, is false. Therefore, nothing can ever be definitively proved with a photograph.
Which one of the following is an assumption that would permit the conclusion above to be properly drawn?
A. Whatever is false in the sense that it cannot express the whole truth cannot furnish definitive proof.
B. The whole truth cannot be known.
C. It is not possible to determine the truthfulness of a photograph in any sense.
D. It is possible to use a photograph as corroborative evidence if there is additional evidence establishing the truth about the scene photographed.
E. If something is being photographed, then it is possible to prove definitively the truth about it.
前提：the photograph in some obvious sense be true, but it cannot express the whole truth .
推论：nothing can ever be definitively proved with a photograph. The problem is which of the following can permit the conclusion be properly drawn.
A. what cannot express the whole truth cannot furnish definitive proof. Right!
B. it is obviously wrong
C. sometimes the photograph cannot express the whole truth but not in any sense. Wrong.
D. this sentence said that photograph can use as an extra evidence for the truth, but it is no relations with the problem.
E. it is obviously wrong according to the passage.
Some cleaning fluids, synthetic carpets, wall paneling, and other products release toxins, such as formaldehyde and benzene, into the household air supply. This is not a problem in well-ventilated houses, but it is a problem in houses that are so well insulated that they trap toxins as well as heat. Recent tests, however, demonstrate that houseplants remove some household toxins from the air and thereby eliminate their danger. In one test, 20 large plants eliminated formaldehyde from a small, well-insulated house.
11. Assume that a person who lives in a small, well-insulated house that contains toxin-releasing products places houseplants, such as those tested, in the house.
Which one of the following can be expected as a result?
A. There will no longer be any need to ventilate the house.
B. The concentration of toxins in the household air supply will remain the same.
C. The house will be warm and have a sage air supply.
D. If there is formaldehyde in the household air supply, its level will decrease.
E. If formaldehyde benzene are being released of each will decrease.
思路：the passage point out that something will release toxins into the air. This is not a problem in well-ventilated houses but a problem in insulated houses. But houseplants can remove some household toxins from the air. In one test 20 large plants eliminated one kind of toxins from a small well-insulated house.
The problems is a person live in a small ,well-insulated house that contains toxin-releasing products. We places some houseplants in the house as those tested. Which one can be a result?
A. we can not include from the passage that houseplants can eliminate all kinds of toxins from the house so ventilation is needed in some way.
B. formaldehyde will be eliminated and the concentration of toxins won’t remain the same.
C. make reference to A
D. it can conclude from the passage! Right!
E. make reference to A
12. The passage is structured to lead to which one of the following conclusions?
A. Houseplants can remove benzene from the air.
B. Nonsynthetic products do not release toxins into houses.
C. Keeping houseplants is an effective means of trapping heat in a poorly insulated house.
D. Keeping houseplants can compensate for some of the negative effects of poor ventilation.
E. The air in a well-insulated house with houseplants will contain fewer toxins than the air in a well-ventilated house without houseplants.
思路：the problem is which one of the following is truth concluded from the passage!
A. we can not include from the passage that houseplants can eliminate all kinds of toxins from the house. Benzene is not mentioned above. Wrong!
B. the passage does not mention which kind product don’t release toxins. Wrong!
C. including from the passage that houseplants can eliminate one kind of toxins , formaldehyde ,from the house but can not trap heat. Wrong!
D. right! Ventilation is better than keeping houseplants in a house.
E. wrong, just the opposite.
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