1. The seventeenth-century physicist Sir Isaac Newton is remembered chiefly for his treatises on motion and gravity. But Newton also conducted experiments secretly for many years abased on the arcane theories of alchemy, trying unsuccessfully to transmute common metals into gold and produce rejuvenating elixirs. If the alchemists of the seventeenth century had published the results of their experiments, chemistry in the eighteenth century would have been more advance than it actually was.
Which one of the following assumptions would allow the conclusion concerning eighteenth-century chemistry to be properly drawn?
A. Scientific progress is retarded by the reluctance of historians to acknowledge the failures of some of the great scientists.
B. Advances in science are hastened when reports of experiments, whether successful or not, are available for review by other scientists.
C. Newton’s work on motion and gravity would not have gained wide acceptance if the results of his work in alchemy had also been made public.
D. Increasing specialization within the sciences makes it difficult for scientists in one field to understand the principles of other fields.
E. The seventeenth-century alchemists could have achieved their goal only if their experiments had been subjected to public scrutiny.
2. Because of the recent transformation of the market, Quore, Inc., must increase the next two years, or it will certainly go bankrupt. In fact, however, Quore’s production structure is such that if a 10 percent productivity increase is possible, then a 20 percent increase is attainable.
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must on the basis of them also be true?
A. It is only Quore’s production structure that makes it possible for Quore to survive the transformation of the market.
B. Quore will not go bankrupt if it achieves a productivity increase of 20 percent over the next two years.
C. If the market had not been transformed, Quore would have required no productivity increase in order to avoid bankruptcy.
D. Because of the transformation of the market, Quore will achieve a productivity increase of 10 percent over the next two years.
E. If a 20 percent productivity increase is unattainable for Quore, then it must go bankrupt.
①transformation of the market(A)→Q increase its production(B)
②Q not increase its production(非B)→Q will go bankrupt(C)
选项A的表述为：Q’s production structure→Q will not go bankrupt(非C)，无法从题干中推出。
选项B的表述为：Q increase production(B)→Q will not go bankrupt(非C)，为②的逆命题， 不成立(原命题与其逆否命题等价)。
选项C的表述为：market had not been transformed(非A)→Q will not need to increase its production(非B)，为①的逆命题， 不成立(原命题与其逆否命题等价)。
选项D的表述为：transformation of the market(A)→Q will achieve a productivity increase，无法从题干中推出。
选项E的表述为：Q not increase production(非B)→Q will go bankrupt(C)，与②一致。
3. Terry: If you want to get a decent job, you should go to college.
Mark: That is not true. There are other reasons to go to college than wanting to get a good job.
Mark’s response shows that he interpreted Terry’s remarks to mean that
A. college is one of many places to get trained for a job
B. decent jobs are obtained only by persons who have gone to college
C. wanting to get a decent job is the only reason for going to college
D. training for decent jobs is available only at colleges
E. all people who want decent jobs go to college
C. 取非的结果，本题的关键在于other reasons
4. Several studies have shown that hospitals are not all equally successful: patients are much more likely to die in some of them than in others. Since the hospitals in the studies had approximately equal per-patient funding, differences in the quality of care provided by hospital staff are probably responsible for the differences in mortality rates.
Which one of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the conclusion drawn above?
A. The staff in some of the hospital studies had earned more advanced degrees, on average, than the staff in the other hospitals.
B. Patient populations vary substantially in average severity of illness from hospital to hospital.
C. The average number of years that staff members stay on at a given job varies considerably from one hospital to another.
D. Approximately the same surgical procedures were performed in each of the hospitals covered in the studies.
E. Mortality rates for hospital patients do not vary considerably from one region of the country to another.
5 Animals with a certain behavioral disorder have unusually high levels of aluminum in their brain tissue. Since a silicon-based compound binds to aluminum and prevents it from affecting the brain tissue, animals can be cured to the disorder by being treated with the compound.
The argument is based on which one of the following assumptions?
A. Animals with the disorder have unusually high but invariable levels of aluminum in their brain tissue.
B. Aluminum is the cause of the disorder rather than merely an effect of it.
C. Introducing the compound into the brain tissue has no side effects.
D. The amount of the compound needed to neutralize the aluminum in an animal’s brain tissue varies depending upon the species.
E. Aluminum is never present in normal brain tissue.
思路：本文开始没有明确指出谁是因，谁是果，只是表明两种相关联的现象。但是第二句话就假设high levels of aluminum是因，否则这个治疗就是是无效的，根据这个要求去寻找答案。
A. 文中没有提到的invariable levels of aluminum出现，与题无关。
C. 没有涉及side effects。
6. The stated goal of the government’s funding program for the arts is to encourage the creation of works of artistic excellence. Senator Beton claims, however, that a government-funded artwork can never reflect the independent artistic conscience of the artist because artists, like anyone else who accepts financial support, will inevitably try to please those who control the distribution of that support. Senator Beton concludes that government funding of the arts not only is a burden on taxpayers but also cannot lead to the creation of works of true artistic excellence.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which Senator Beton’s argument is based?
A. Most taxpayers have little or no interest in the creation of works of true artistic excellence.
B. Government funding of the arts is more generous than other financial support most artists receive.
C. Distribution of government funds for the arts is based on a broad agreement as to what constitutes artistic excellence.
D. Once an artist has produced works of true artistic excellence, he or she will never accept government funding.
E. A contemporary work of art that does not reflect the independent artistic conscience of the artist cannot be a work of true artistic excellence.
思路：本文关键是要把never reflect the independent artistic conscience of the artist和cannot lead to the creation of works of true artistic excellence联系起来，找出本质联系，只要存在关系independent artistic conscience of the artist包含true artistic excellence就可以证明文中的观点，因此要找出能表示此关系的答案。
E. 符合要求，注意如果答案意思是the independent artistic conscience of the artist是true artistic excellence的必要条件即可，当然是充要条件也可，万一题目变化答案我们只要把握这个原则即可。
7. Older United States automobiles have been identified as contributing disproportionately to global air pollution. The requirement in many jurisdictions that automobiles pass emission-control inspections has had the effect of taking many such automobiles out of service in the United States, as they fail inspection and their owners opt to buy newer automobiles. Thus the burden of pollution such older United States automobiles contribute to the global atmosphere will be gradually reduced over the next decade.
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
A. It is impossible to separate the air of one country or jurisdiction from that of others, since air currents circle the globe.
B. When automobiles that are now new become older, they will, because of a design change, cause less air pollution than older automobiles do now.
C. There is a thriving market for used older Untied States automobiles that are exported to regions that have no emission-control regulations.
D. The number of jurisdictions in the United States requiring automobiles to pass emission-control inspections is no longer increasing.
E. Even if all the older automobiles in the United States were retired from service, air pollution from United States automobiles could still increase if the total number of automobiles in use should increase significantly.
The passage draws the conclusion that the share of pollution of such older US automobiles will be gradually reduced over the next 10 years. The simple reason provided is that these cars will be eliminated from the roads in the US. However, by pointing out that these cars will be used in other countries through a market exporting them to other regions, Choice C disproves the righteousness of the argument.
A, even if we cannot separate the air, it is still easy to calculate the quantity of pollution before emitting the pollution. A cannot weaken the conclusion.
B, the passage is talking about THAT part of pollution from old cars. B does not bear on the topic.
D, even if the number is not increasing, the old cars in those already passed will be put out of road. D does not weaken the conclusion.
E. The passage is focusing on THAT part of pollution from old cars. E does not bear on THAT part of pollution from old cars.
备注： 此题目原来不全，补充版本也有误，现在第二次补充，依据是：LSAT Test-4-Section III-8
C There is a thriving market for used older Untied States automobiles that are exported to regions that have no emission-control regulations.
8. The reforms to improve the quality of public education that have been initiated on the part of suppliers of public education have been insufficient. Therefore, reforms must be demanded by consumers. Parents should be given government vouchers with which to pay for their children’s education and should be allowed to choose the schools at which the vouchers will be spent. To attract students, academically underachieving schools will be forced to improve their academic offerings.
The argument assumes that
A. in selecting schools parents would tend to prefer a reasonable level of academic quality to greater sports opportunities or more convenient location.
B. improvement in the academic offerings of schools will be enforced by the discipline of the job market in which graduation students compete
C. there is a single best way to educate students
D. children are able to recognize which schools are better and would influence their parents’ decisions.
E. schools would each improve all of their academic offering and would not tend to specialize in one particular field to the exclusion of others.
思路：本文关键是要把Parents to choose和forced to improve their academic offerings联系起来，文中强调的是只有家长选择学校才能迫使学校提高教学质量，也就是大家认为应该搭起一座桥来，即家长选择看重的是教学质量。否则，家长如果认为其他的原因比教学质量更重要的话，学校是不会提高教学质量的。
B. 出现了he discipline of the job market新名词，与题目无关。
9. The number of North American children who are obese-that is, who have more body fat than do 85 percent of North American children their age---is steadily increasing, according to four major studies conducted over the past 15 years.
If the finding reported above is correct, it can be properly concluded that
A. when four majors studies all produce similar results, those studies must be accurate
B. North American children have been progressively less physically active over the past 15 years
C. the number of North American children who are not obese increased over the past 15 years
D. over the past 15 years, the number of North American children who are underweight has declined
E. the incidence of obesity in North American children tends to increase as the children grow older
10. School superintendent: It is a sad fact that, until now, entry into the academically best high school in our district has been restricted to the children of people who were wealthy enough to pay the high tuition. Parents who were previously denied the option of sending their children to this school now have the option, since I am replacing the tuition requirement with a requirement that allows only those who live in the neighborhood of the school to attend.
The superintendent’s claim about the effect of replacing the tuition requirement relies on the assumption that
A. the residents of the school’s neighborhood tent to be wealthy
B. people other than those wealthy enough to have paid the old tuition are able to live in the neighborhood of the school
C. people less wealthy than those who were able to pay the old tuition are in the majority in the district
D. there are no high schools in the district other than the one referred to by the superintendent
E. there are many people not wealthy enough to have paid the old tuition who wish to have their children attend the school
思路： 本题中的替代办法必须顾及两点，一交不起老学费的可以来读书，而且交不起学费的应能够 live in the neighborhood of the school，如果穷人不能住在这个学校附近，这个替代是无意义的。
C. 太偏，文中只讨论the neighborhood of the school，are in the majority in the district并不意味着live in the neighborhood of the school。
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