Claim: Imagination is a more valuable asset than experience.
Reason: People who lack experience are free to imagine what is possible without the constraints of established habits and attitudes.
Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the claim and the reason on which that claim is based
I fundamentally agree with the speaker's assertion;however,as the speaker implies,it is impossible not to overstate the comparative value of imagination.
1. One need only observe young children as they go about their daily lives to appreciate the role that pure imagination can play as an aid to accomplishing tasks.
2. The speaker's contention also finds ample empirical support in certain forms of artistic accomplishment and scientific invention.
3. Of course, there are many notable exceptions to the rule that imagination unfettered by experience breeds remarkable insights and accomplishments.
4. On the other hand, it is important not to take this assertion about artistic and scientific accomplishment too far.
The following appeared in a health magazine.
"The citizens of Forsythe have adopted more healthful lifestyles.Their responses to a recent survey show that in their eating habits they conform more closely to government nutritional recommendations than they did ten years ago.Furthermore,there has been a fourfold increase in sales of food products containing kiran,a substance that a scientific study has shown reduces cholesterol.This trend is also evident in reduced sales of sulia, a food that few of the most healthy citizens regularly eat."
Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument.
A. 前提[隐性]：Forsythe 的居民饮食习惯越来越健康
B. 结论：the citizens of Forsythe have adopted more healthful lifestyles Forsythe的居民采取了更健康的生活方式
1. Their responses to a recent survey show that in their eating habits they conform more closely to government nutritional recommendations than they did ten years ago
2. There has been a fourfold increase in sales of food products containing kiran,a substance that a scientific study has shown reduces cholesterol
3. This trend is also evident in reduced sales of sulia, a food that few of the most healthy citizens regularly eat
1. The name of the Sloane Matthew Library has long been_____ ;even longtime city residents assume it is a run-of-the-mill library, never suspecting what art treasures it contains.
分号前后语气方向一致，其中never suspecting what art treasures it contains.说到大家认为博物馆里面没啥特别的。那么空就选负向词misleading
其它选项含义：A 尊敬 B 提议 D 提高，振奋 E 有趌的，令人着迷的
2. At their best,(i) _____ book reviews are written in defense of value and in the tacit hope that the author,having had his or her(ii) _____ pointed out,might secretly agree that the book could be improved.
Blank (i) Blank (ii)
A. abstruse D. strengths
B. adverse E. transgressions
C. hortatory F. assumptions
首先,that后面的内容the author, having had his or her()pointed out, might secretly agree that the book could be improved. 这句话的意思是，在他的( )被指出来之后，作者才同意书能被修改。既然说书能被修改，说明存在不足之处处，故空格2应该填写一个负评价的词语，表示作者的(负评价词语)被指出来。负评价的词只有transgressions。其次，that前面说：尽其所能，基于维护书的价值以及基于心照不宣的希望，( )的书评被写下来。在这里，书评被写下来的目的有两个：1.维护书的价值;2.有着心照不宣的希望。而that引导定语从句，先行词是hope，that定语从句的主干是the author might secretly agree that the book could be improved，故这个hope指的是作者同意书可以被修改。而作者同意书被修改，是在他的 transgressions 被指出来之后。因此，写书评的目的能够达到，就要指出作者的transgressions，而什么样书评才能指出作者的丌趍?当然只有负评价的书评才能指出不足。所以空格1要填写一个负评价的词汇，adverse。
3. In the nineteenth century the (i)_____advanced mechanical printing techniques made it possible for newspaper owners to print newspapers cheaply and in mass quantities,but unlike many other mechanized industries,where machines (ii)_____ workers,the new printing machines required trained compositors to run them,thereby (iii) _____ the demand for skilled printing labor.
Blank (i) Blank (ii) Blank (iii)
A. wide application of D. marginalized G. ignoring
B. extensive resistance to E. intrigued H. anticipating
C. great expense of F. isolated I. increasing
A D I
第一空由题意易知选 A，表示19 世纪机器打印技术的广泛应用使报纸打印更便宜和更大数量。第三空，新机器需要训练新人去操作机器，因此打印技工的需求会怎样，需要新人，那需求就是增加。第三空为increasing。第二空unlike和but都体现反义重复，新机器需要工人，旧机器工人，应该是体现工人的不重要性。排除 E. intrigued 吸引人的，剩下两个的意思分别是：isolate：set apart from others; select from among others;insulate 隔离;区别;孤立marginalized：to relegate to unimportant or powerless position within a society or group降到不重要的位置。故第二空为 D
4. A particular bacterium that has never encountered a particular virus will usually succumb to it,a_____that may,surprisingly,be beneficial to the colony in which the bacterium lives.
第一句：从未遭遇过特定病毒的绅菌往往会屈服于它，令人惊奇的是，它的这一特性有益于绅菌的繁殖生长。surprising 表前后矛盾/反义。前面说绅菌容易屈服，为负评价，后面说这一特性也带来了好处，描述的是绅菌的特性 所以选 AC 表示特征 特性补充： 前面说会前面说会抑制，后面说会有益于，然后中间要填的是一个过程 colony in，这个过程必须包涵有病毒的特性，所以选 A，关于 C 是因为 susceptibility 的上意词是characteristic。
5. Family photos of the author suggest that she was _____ child: she seemed to wear a permanent frown.
A. a sullen
B. an amiable
C. a surly
D. a beautiful
E. a prudent
F. a stunning
frown提示选不开心，阴郁;sullen 不高兴的;amiable 令人愉悦的;surly 坏脾气;prudent 谨慎;stunning causing astonishment or disbelief
6. Biologists agree that snakes descended from lizards,but exactly where this first happened has been a matter of debate since the 1800s,when two _____ theories emerged.
competing=contending 都有提出相互竞逐的主张之义;irrefutable=conclusive 则为debate的反义字;dubious 是怀疑的意思，和complex不构成任何一组同义字。
1. According to surveys at a company,20 percent of the employees owned cell phones in 1994,and 60 percent of the employees owned cell phones in 1998.
From 1994 to 1998,what was the percent increase in the fraction of employees who owned cell phones?
2. The relationship between temperature C,in degrees Celsius,and temperature F,in degrees Fahrenheit,is given by the formula F=9/5 *c + 32.If a recipe calls for an oven temperature of 210 degrees Celsius,what is the oven temperature in degrees Fahrenheit?
给出了华氏和摄氏温度的转换公式，将210代入公式的C，得出 F=410，选 C。
3. In right triangle ABC, the ratio of the lengths of the two legs is 2 to 5. If the area of triangle ABC is 20, what is the length of the hypotenuse?
直角三角形已知两直接边比例，根据面积为 20，反推出两边分别是 4 和 10，因此斜边长度等于√(16+100)=2√29，选 E。
4. If an investment of P dollars is made today and the value of the investment doubles every 7 years,what will be the value of the investment,in dollars,28 years from today?
假设每年利息x，7年后本金翻倍：P*x^7=2P，x=2^(1/7)，28 年后就是 P*x^28=P*2^4，也就是 16*P，所以选 C。
5. R is a list of 15 consecutive integers, and T is a list of 21 consecutive integers.The median of the integers in list R is equal to the least integer in list T.If the two lists are combined into one list of 36 integers,how many different integers are on the combined list?
What makes a worker ant perform one particular task rather than another?From the 1970s to the mid-1980s,researchers emphasized internal factors within individual ants,such as polymorphism,the presence in the nest of workers of different shapes and sizes,each suited to a particular task.Other elements then considered to have primary influence upon an ant's career were its age—it might change tasks as it got older—and its genetics.However,subsequent ant researchers have focused on external prompts for behavior.In advocating this approach,Deborah Gordon cites experiments in which intervention in a colony's makeup perturbed worker activity.By removing workers or otherwise altering the nest conditions,researchers were able to change the tasks performed by individual workers.
It can be inferred from the passage that Gordon and earlier researchers would agree with which of the following statements about worker ants?
A. Disruption of the nest can affect workers’roles.
B. Genetics predominates over other factors in determining a worker ant's role.
C. An individual worker's tasks can change during its lifetime.
disruption of the nest是在文章的后一部分在讨论DG的实验的时候提出来的新的结论，显然这个是不能被earlier researchers认可的。researchers emphasized internal factors within individual ants, such as polymorphism,the presence in the nest of workers of different shapes and sizes,each suited to a particular task.Other elements then considered to have primary influence upon an ant's career were its age—it might change tasks as it got older—and its genetics这里面出现的才是二者所共同认可的。所以 A 选项错误。B 选项，文章显然是没有说过genetics是predominate的，所有的因素没有出现一个排序，B选项错误。既然年龄可以是一个影响因子，那么年龄变化，task也该变化，即在lifetime中task是改变的。C选项正确。
What causes a helix in nature to appear with either a dextral(right-handed,or clockwise)twist or a sinistral(left-handed,or counterclockwise)twist is one of the most intriguing puzzles in the science of form.Most spiral-shaped snail species are predominantly dextral.But at one time,handedness (twist direction of the shell)was equally distributed within some snail species that have become predominantly dextral or,in a few species,predominantly sinistral.What mechanisms control handedness and keep left-handedness rare?It would seem unlikely that evolution should discriminate against sinistral snails if sinistral and dextral snails are exact mirror images,for any disadvantage that a sinistral twist in itself could confer on its possessor is almost inconceivable.But left and right-handed snails are not actually true mirror images of one another.Their shapes are noticeably different.Sinistral rarity might,then,be a consequence of possible disadvantages conferred by these other concomitant structural features.In addition,perhaps left-and right-handed snails cannot mate with each other,having incompatible twist directions.Presumably an individual of the rarer form would have relative difficulty in finding a mate of the same hand, thus keeping the rare form rare or creating geographically separated right-and left-handed populations.
But this evolutionary mechanism combining dissymmetry, anatomy, and chance does not provide an adequate explanation of why right-handedness should have become predominant.It does not explain,for example,why the infrequent unions between snails of opposing hands produce fewer offspring of the rarer than the commoner form in species where each parent contributes equally to handedness.Nor does it explain why,in a species where one parent determines handedness,a brood is not exclusively right-or left-handed when the offspring would have the same genetic predisposition.In the European pond snail Lymnaea peregra,a predominantly dextral species whose handedness is maternally determined,a brood might be expected to be exclusively right- or left-handed—and this often occurs.However,some broods possess a few snails of the opposing hand,and in predominantly sinistral broods,the incidence of dextrality is surprisingly high.
Here,the evolutionary theory must defer to a theory based on an explicit developmental mechanism that can favor either right-or left-handedness.In the case of Lymnaea peregra,studies indicate that a dextral gene is expressed during egg formation;i.e.,before egg fertilization,the gene produces a protein,found in the cytoplasm of the egg,that controls the pattern of cell division and thus handedness.In experiments,an injection of cytoplasm from dextral eggs changes the pattern of sinistral eggs,but an injection from sinistral eggs does not influence dextral eggs.One explanation for the differing effects is that all Lymnaea peregra eggs begin left-handed but most switch to being right-handed.Thus the path to a solution to the puzzle of handedness in all snails appears to be as twisted as the helix itself.
1. The second paragraph of the passage is primarily concerned with offering possible reasons why
A. it is unlikely that evolutionary mechanisms could discriminate against sinistral snails
B. sinistrality is relatively uncommon among snail species
C. dextral and sinistral populations of a snail species tend to intermingle
D. a theory based on a developmental mechanism inadequately accounts for the predominance of dextrality across snail species
E. dextral snails breed more readily than sinistral snails,even within predominantly sinistral populations
线索很明显在第二段. A选项为误导选项,与第二段的第一句很像,如果只看这句就做题可能会被误导.但题目问的是"offering possible reasons"why,这是第二段中间的Sinistral rarity might....才明说.此句说造成的sinistral rarity这样的结果可能是也由下面concomitant structural features造成,所以此句当然也就是那些possible reasons要解释的.
2. Which of the following accurately describes the relationship between the evolutionary and developmental theories discussed in the passage?
A. Although the two theories reach the same conclusion, each is based on different assumptions.
B. They present contradictory explanations of the same phenomenon.
C. The second theory accounts for certain phenomena that the first cannot explain.
D. The second theory demonstrates why the first is valid only for very unusual,special cases.
E. They are identical and interchangeable in that the second theory merely restates the first in less technical terms.
A direct contradiction,定位第四段第一句the evolutionary theory must defer to a theory based on an explicit developmental(defer to=服从)表示 evolutionary=developmental，所以assumptions应当相同，因此不选。
B one word wrong,“contradictory”,它们两者都表示对旋的无法理解，而不是对立矛盾，因此不选。
C 正确，定位第四段的 cytoplasm，从 evolutionary 来看，是无法解释的，所以选 C。
D 出现了 only 这种极端用词，所以错误。
E "identical and interchangeable"和文中 developmental 和 evolutionary 迚行的研究直接相悖，所以错误。
3. It can be inferred from the passage that a predominantly sinistral snail species might stay predominantly sinistral for each of the following reasons
A. a developmental mechanism that affects the cell-division pattern of snails
B. structural features that advantage dextral snails of the species
C. a relatively small number of snails of the same hand for dextral snails of the species to mate with
D. anatomical incompatibility that prevents mating between snails of opposing hands within the species
E. geographic separation of sinistral and dextral populations
A 选项的理由可在最后一段找到; B,C,D,E选项的线索都在第二段,但B选项是advantage‘dextral'snails而不是sinistral snails.
B 中的 structure feature 在文中是用来解释右旋比左旋更有优势.而题目问的是,左旋物种一直保持左旋的塬因.即,structure feature 可以解释左旋比右旋少,但是不能解释为何左旋物种一直保持左旋。
X-ray examination of a recently discovered painting—judged by some authorities to be a self-portrait by Vincent van Gogh—revealed an under image of a woman's face.Either van Gogh or another painter covered the first painting with the portrait now seen on the surface of the canvas.Because the face of the woman in the under image also appears on canvases van Gogh is known to have painted,the surface painting must be an authentic self-portrait by van Gogh.
The conclusion is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?
A. If a canvas already bears a painted image produced by an artist,a second artist who uses the canvas to produce a new painting tends to be influenced by the style of the first artist.
B. Many painted canvases that can be reliably attributed to van Gogh contain under images of subjects that appear on at least one other canvas that van Gogh is known to have painted.
C. Any painted canvas incorrectly attributed to van Gogh would not contain an under image of a subject that appears in authentic paintings by that artist.
D. A painted canvas cannot be reliably attributed to an artist unless the authenticity of any under image that painting might contain can be reliably attributed to the artist.
E. A painted canvas cannot be reliably attributed to a particular artist unless a reliable x-ray examination of the painting is performed.
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