"High-profile awards such as the Nobel Prize are actually damaging to society because they suggest that only a few people deserve such recognition."
Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take.In developing and supporting your position,you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these considerations shape your position
The fact that only a few people deserve high-profile awards is insufficient evidence to suggest that such awards are damaging to society.
1. Undoubtedly, high-profile awards suggest that only a few people deserve such recognition.
2. What is significant is that high-profile awards point out the right directions in which all individuals in particular fields should make efforts.
3. To make sure that high-profile awards serve the right purpose of society,it is imperative that the rules of the awards be fair and strictly adhered to.
Milk and dairy products are rich in vitamin D and calcium—substances essential for building and maintaining bones.Many people therefore say that a diet rich in dairy products can help prevent osteoporosis,a disease that is linked to both environmental and genetic factors and that causes the bones to weaken significantly with age.But a long-term study of a large number of people found that those who consistently consumed dairy products throughout the years of the study have a higher rate of bone fractures than any other participants in the study.Since bone fractures are symptomatic of osteoporosis,this study result shows that a diet rich in dairy products may actually increase, rather than decrease,the risk of osteoporosis.
Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument.
A. 前提：bone fractures are a symptom of osteoporosis
B. 结论：a diet rich in dairy products may actually increase,rather than decrease,the risk of osteoporosis
1. Milk and dairy products are rich in vitamin D and calcium, substances essential for building and maintaining bones
牛奶和奶制品富含维生素 D 和钙，这些都是骨骼生长和保持骨骼健康所必须的物质
2. Many people therefore believe that a diet rich in dairy products can help prevent osteoporosis,a disease in which the bones weaken significantly with age and that is linked to both environmental and genetic factors
3. Osteoporosis is a disease in which the bones weaken significantly with age and that is linked to both environmental and genetic factors
4. A long-term study of a large number of people found that those who have consistently consumed dairy products throughout the years of the study have a higher rate of bone fractures than any other participants in the study
1、“维生素 D 和钙”是骨骼生长和保持骨骼健康所必须的物质，但是食用“牛奶和奶制品”是否就会给人体补充充足的骨骼生长和保持骨骼健康所必须的物质?
1. In searching for norms in the sense of authoritative standards of what ought to be, rather than in the sense of what is average and thus can be considered normal, normative ethics aims to _____ .
题目解析：The sentence defines normative ethics by specifying the sense of the“norms”for which it searches.Since these are authoritative ethical standards,the word that fills the blank must describe the act of establishing those standards.The
choice that does this is“dictate.”Of the other choices,“predict”suggests that normative ethics merely attempts to describe future behavior rather than establish what guidelines should shape it,while“personalize”suggests a concern with individual circumstances that is not otherwise addressed in the sentence.“Mitigate”(to moderate or alleviate)is likewise incongruent with the rest of the sentence,while“question”does not address normative ethics’concern with establishing rather than questioning norms.Thus the correct answer is dictate (Choice D).
2. The figure-skating pair's convincing victory last week was particularly (i)_____to their rivals,who were in peak form and complained privately about the judging. That the pair won when their rivals were (ii)_____too is also impressive.
Blank (i) Blank (ii)
A. unsurprising D. terrific
B. irksome E. nervous
C. gratifying F. inconsistent
3. That today's students of American culture tend to (i)_____classical music is understandable.In our own time,America's musical high culture has degenerated into a formulaic entertainment divorced from the contemporary moment.Thus,to miss out on what our orchestras are up to is not to (ii) _____ much.In the late Gilded Age,however,music was widely esteemed as the “queen of the arts.”Classical music was in its American heyday,(iii) _____ the culture at large.
Blank (i) Blank (ii) Blank (iii)
A. promote D. sacrifice G. antagonistic toward
B. reinterpret E. appreciate H. generally rejected by
C. ignore F. malign I. centrally embedded in
正确答案：C D I
题目解析：The“however”of the next-to-last sentence indicates that the author's characterization of the relationship between classical music and popular culture during the Gilded Age contrasts with the current state of affairs.Since music was widely esteemed during the Gilded Age,it follows that it is viewed more negatively,or disregarded,during the current era.Of the choices for Blank (i),“ignore”is the only choice that conveys this sentiment;“promote”connotes the opposite,while “reinterpret” suggests a different sort of positive engagement with classical music that is otherwise unmentioned in the passage.The author characterizes the current disconnection between music and culture as understandable,and uses pejorative language(“degenerated,”“formulaic”)to describe current classical music.Of the three choices for Blank (ii),“sacrifice” best conveys this dismissive attitude;“appreciate”would convey that those who forego orchestral concerts are indeed missing something worthwhile,while“malign”overstates the presumed level of feeling and activity of one who simply does not attend concerts.
Since the lack of a connection between culture and classical music must contrast with the relationship during the Gilded Age, the answer to Blank(iii)is“centrally embedded in.”Of the other two choices,“generally rejected by”would provide no contrast,while“antagonistic toward”suggests a relationship that would not explain why music was so widely esteemed. Thus the correct answer is ignore(Choice C),sacrifice (Choice D),and centrally embedded in (Choice I).
4. If big sums are to be spent on cleaning up environmental disasters,it is better to spend them on unglamorous but____problems such as unsanitary water in Third World countries.
A：futile 无用的，丌重要的;B：ephemeral 短暂的，朝生暮死的;C：pressing 急迫的，紧急的
D：controversial 有争议的;E：transitory 短暂的;F：critical 临界的，急迫的
5. The process of establishing a literary canon is seen by some as, in part,an attempt by certain scholars to make their own labors central and to relegate the work of others to _____ status.
6. The mayor is more ideologically consistent than is widely believed:her long-term commitment to tax reform,for example,is not indicative of _____ .
题目大意：市长 consistent，然后丼例说明...is not 空格(丼例子就是为了说明市长始终如一，所以空格应该填发化)
A：perspicacity 洞察力，聪颖，睿智;B：capriciousness 变化莫测，变化无常;C：callousness 麻木不仁;
D：fickleness 多变;E：clear-headedness 头脑清醒，理智;F：insensitivity 不敏感
1. Points R, S, and T lie on a number line, where S is between R and T.The distance between R and S is 6, and the distance between R and T is 15.
Quantity A：the distance between the midpoints of lines segments RS and ST
Quantity B：the distance between S and T
A. Quantity A is greater.
B. Quantity B is greater.
C. The two quantities are equal.
D. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given.
题目解析：Quantity A 长度为 RT 的一半，7.5，Quantity B 长度为 15-6=9，因此选 B。
2. x, y, and z are the lengths of the sides of a triangle.
A. Quantity A is greater.
B. Quantity B is greater.
C. The two quantities are equal.
D. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given.
题目解析：两边之和大于第三边，x+y>z. 所以 x+y+z>2*z
3. Rectangle R has length 30 and width 10, and square S has length 5.The perimeter of S is what fraction of the perimeter of R ? ___/___
题目解析：R 周长为 80，S 周长为 20，按照题目要求，前面填入 20，后面填入 80。根据OG 解释，考生如果约分为 1/4 也是正确的。
4.1, –3, 4, 1, –3, 4, 1, –3, 4,..In the sequence above,the first 3 terms repeat without end. What is the sum of the terms of the sequence from the 150th term to the 154th term?
题目解析：题目说前三项无限循环， 所以1，-3，4 是一个循环。150th 正好是4，然后以此类推，150th 到 154th 的和为 4+ 1+(-3)+4+1=7
5. For which of the following bird species is the standard deviation of the numbers of sightings shown for the four seasons least
Ragwort was accidentally introduced to New Zealand in the late nineteenth century and,like so many invading foreign species,quickly became a pest.By the 1920s,the weed was rampant.What made matters worse was that its proliferation coincided with sweeping changes in agriculture and a massive shift from sheep farming to dairying.
Ragwort contains a battery of toxic and resilient alkaloids:even honey made from its flowers contains the poison in dilute form.Livestock generally avoid grazing where ragwort is growing,but they will do so once it displaces grass and clover in their pasture.Though sheep can eat it for months before showing any signs of illness,if cattle eat it they sicken quickly,and fatality can even result.
1. The passage suggests that the proliferation of ragwort was particularly ill-timed because it
A. coincided with and exacerbated a decline in agriculture
B. took place in conditions that enabled the ragwort to spread faster than it otherwise would have done
C. led to an increase in the amount of toxic compounds contained in the plants
D. prevented people from producing honey that could be eaten safely
E. had consequences for livestock that were more dramatic than they otherwise would have been
题目解析：第二句说 ragwort的繁殖赶上了新西兰农业的发化——从养羊到养牛;而最后一句话又说这种草对牛的危害更大,so the proliferation of ragwort was particularly ill-timed
The passage mentions that ragwort's impact on New Zealand's agriculture was especially severe because the plant's proliferation“coincided with sweeping changes in agriculture that saw a massive shift from sheep farming to dairying.”The severity of the impact was increased because cattle,which were displacing sheep,are much more sensitive than sheep to the toxins contained in ragwort.This points to Choice E as the correct answer choice.Nothing in the passage suggests that the proliferation of ragwort coincided with a decline in agriculture (Choice A),occurred faster than it might have done (Choice B),or made the plants more toxic (Choice C).There is a suggestion that ragwort honey might not be safe for humans,but there is no indication that this made the timing of the proliferation particularly unfortunate.
2. The passage implies which of the following about the problems ragwort poses to dairy farmers?
A. Milk produced by cows that eat ragwort causes illness in humans who drink it.
B. Ragwort can supplant the plants normally eaten by cattle.
C. Cattle,unlike sheep,are unable to differentiate between ragwort and healthy grazing.
题目解析：尽管 A 有可能正确，但是文章里没有任何Support。B由Livestock generally avoid grazing where ragwort is growing,but they will do so once it displaces grass and clover in their pasture.支持，C完全超出文章之外。
Frederick Douglass was unquestionably the most famous African American of the nineteenth century; indeed,when he died in 1895 he was among the most distinguished public figures in the United States. In his study of Douglass’career as a major figure in the movement to abolish slavery and as a spokesman for Black rights,Waldo Martin has provoked controversy by contending that Douglass also deserves a prominent place in the intellectual history of the United States because he exemplified so many strands of nineteenth-century thought:romanticism,idealism,individualism,liberal humanism,and an unshakable belief in progress.But this very argument provides ammunition for those who claim that most of Douglass’ideas,being so representative of their time,are now obsolete.Douglass’vision of the future as a melting pot in which all racial and ethnic differences would dissolve into“a composite American nationality”appears from the pluralist perspective of many present-day intellectuals to be not only utopian but even wrongheaded.Yet there is a central aspect of Douglass’thought that seems not in the least bit dated or irrelevant to current concerns. He has no rival in the history of the nineteenth-century United States as an insistent and effective critic of the doctrine of innate racial inequality.He not only attacked racist ideas in his speeches and writings,but he offered his entire career and all his achievements as living proof that racists were wrong in their belief that one race could be inherently superior to another.
While Martin stresses Douglass’antiracist egalitarianism,he does not adequately explain how this aspect of Douglass'thought fits in with his espousal of the liberal Victorian attitudes that many present-day intellectuals consider to be naive and outdated.The fact is that Douglass was attracted to these democratic-capitalist ideals of his time because they could be used to attack slavery and the doctrine of White supremacy. His favorite rhetorical strategy was to expose the hypocrisy of those who,while professing adherence to the ideals of democracy and equality of opportunity,condoned slavery and racial discrimination.It would have been strange indeed if he had not embraced liberal idealism,because it proved its worth for the cause of racial equality during the national crisis that eventually resulted in emancipation and citizenship for African Americans.These points may seem obvious,but had Martin given them more attention, his analysis might have constituted a more convincing rebuttal to those critics who dismiss Douglass’ideology as a relic of the past.If one accepts the proposition that Douglass’deepest commitment was to Black equality and that he used the liberal ideals of his time as weapons in the fight for that cause, then it is hard to fault him for seizing the best weapons at hand.
1. The passage as a whole can best be described as doing which of the following?
A. Explaining Douglass’emergence as a major figure in the movement to abolish slavery
B. Tracing the origins of Douglass’thought in nineteenth-century romanticism,idealism,and liberal humanism
C. Analyzing Douglass’speeches and writings from a modern, pluralist perspective
D. Criticizing Martin for failing to stress the contradiction between Douglass’principles and the liberal Victorian attitudes of his day
E. Formulating a response to those who consider Douglass’political philosophy to be archaic and irrelevant
A. abolish slavery 上的作用，太绅节，错
B. FD idea的源头，文中没有提到，错
C. 分析 FD 的 writing，绅节，错
“These points may seem obvious, but had Martin given them more attention,his analysis might have constituted a more convincing rebuttal to those critics who dismiss Douglass’ideology as a relic of the past.If one accepts the proposition that Douglass’deepest commitment was to Black equality and that he used the liberal ideals of his time as weapons in the fight for that cause, then it is hard to fault him for seizing the best weapons at hand.”之句话是理解文章的关键，出现在文末。如果M更关注这点的话，那么他对人们认为D观点过时的反驳就会更有说服力。如果一个人接受并认为D最深的目的就是追求黑人的平等幵运用了“liberal ideals”最为他反驳他人观点的武器，那是绝对不会错的。
2. It can be inferred that the “present-day intellectuals” believe that
A. although Douglass used democratic-capitalist ideas to attack slavery and racial inequality,he did not sincerely believe in those ideas
B. the view that Douglass was representative of the intellectual trends of his time is obsolete
C. Douglass’opposition to the doctrine of innate racial inequality is irrelevant to current concerns
D. Douglass’commitment to Black equality does not adequately account for his naive attachment to quaint liberal Victorian political views
E. Douglass’goal of ultimately doing away with all racial and ethnic differences is neither achievable nor desirable
题目解析：Douglass’vision of the future as a melting pot in which all racial and ethnic differences would dissolve into“a composite American nationality”appears from the pluralist perspective of many present-day intellectuals to be not only utopian but even wrongheaded.
DF的想法不现实，缺乏实践无法实现。E选项中neither achievable nor desirable完美体现了这个意思。
3. According to the passage, Douglass used which of the following as evidence against the doctrine of innate racial inequality?
A. His own life story
B. His vision of a composite American nationality
C. The hypocrisy of self-professed liberal idealists
D. The inevitability of the emancipation of African Americans
E. The fact that most prominent intellectuals advocated the abolition of slavery
题目解析：He not only attacked racist ideas in his speeches and writings,but he offered his entire career and all his achievements as living proof that racists were wrong in their belief that one race could be inherently superior to another. 体现了A中的own life story。
Despite the fact that the health-inspection procedures for catering establishments are more stringent than those for ordinary restaurants,more of the cases of food poisoning reported to the city health department were brought on by banquets served by catering services than were brought on by restaurant meals.
Which of the following, if true, helps explain the apparent paradox in the statement above?
A. A significantly larger number of people eat in restaurants than attend catered banquets in any given time period.
B. Catering establishments know how many people they expect to serve,and therefore are less likely than restaurants to have, and serve,leftover food, a major source of food poisoning.
C. Many restaurants provide catering services for banquets in addition to serving individual meals.
D. The number of reported food-poisoning cases at catered banquets is unrelated to whether the meal is served on the caterer's or the client's premises.
E. People are unlikely to make a connection between a meal they have eaten and a subsequent illness unless the illness strikes a group who are in communication with one another.
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