Early naturalists believed two species of beaver lived in North America: dam beavers and bank beavers. The bank species was thought to resemble the muskrat in behavior, living in burrows or lodges and unable to build dams. In fact, dams are primarily a strategy for dealing with annual variations in water levels. If water levels fall in summer, as they do in most of North America, then beavers lodge entrances may be exposed. With stabilized water levels, their homes are much safer.
The physicist Wallace Sabine pioneered the scientific study of architectural acoustics when he was asked in 1895 to fix a university lecture hall in which the echo of a speaker’s words rendered them unintelligible. He found that the length of time it takes a sound’s echo to decay is determined by the absorption of the sound’s original energy by surrounding material.
The discovery of subsurface life on Earth, surviving independently from surface life, refuted the belief that biological processes require not only liquid water but sunlight as well, thus greatly enhancing the possibility of life beyond Earth. Take Jupiter’s moon Europa. Space probes show a body covered with a thick layer of ice. As Europa orbits its planet, however, it flexes due to the gravitational tug-of-war between it,its sister moons, and Jupiter.
The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1868,prohibits state governments from denying citizens the “equal protection of the laws.” Although precisely what the framers of the amendment meant by this equal protection clause remains unclear, all interpreters agree that the framers’ immediate objective was to provide a constitutional warrant for the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which guaranteed the citizenship of all persons born in the United States and subject to United States jurisdiction.
Feminist scholars have tended to regard women in the nineteenth-century United States who elected to remain single as champions of women’s autonomy and as critics of marriage as an oppressive institution. Indeed, many nineteenth-century American women who participated in reform movements or who distinguished themselves as writers and professionals were single. Yet this view of single women tends to distort the meaning of their choices.
A critical consensus has emerged that Mary McCarthy will be remembered primarily as an essayist rather than as a novelist. But despite her formidable gifts as a polemical and discursive writer, and for all her reputation as an intellectual who sacrificed feeling to intelligence, what powers McCarthy’s best essays are her fictional rather than strictly intellectual gifts.
Some archaeologists speculate that the Americas might have been initially colonized between 40,000 and 25,000 years ago. However, to support this theory it is necessary to explain the absence of generally accepted habitation sites for that time interval in what is now the United States. Australia, which has a smaller land area than the United States, has many such sites, supporting the generally accepted claim that the continent was colonized by humans at least 40,000 years ago.
For most of the twentieth century, scholars generally accepted the proposition that nations are enduring entities that predated the rise of modern nation-states and that provided the social and cultural foundations of the state. This perspective has certainly been applied to Korea; most historians have assumed that the Korean nation has existed since the dawn of historical time. In recent years, however, Western scholars have questioned the idea of the nation as an enduring entity. .
Matisse's art, with its spectacular immediacy and its mysterious depths, poses confounding problems for analysis. When Hilary Spurling writes of The Piano Lesson that “the picture can not be confined to any single source or meaning,” she might be writing of any of Matisse’s works. Picasso’s themes, with their collage of traditional signs and symbols, are far more susceptible to conventional iconographic analysis than anything in Matisse.
6-2. The company suffers from an almost totallack of _____: even the most innocuous communications between departments lendto devolve into acrimony.
27-1. Though many avant-garde writers _____traditional distinctions among literary categories, combining elements ofbiography and fiction, prose and poetry, this fusion of forms has been slow tocatch on with publishers.
27-10. The concept of the Hellenistic period inancient history has proved useful but also _____, with scholars disagreeing onthe dates when the period began and ended.
33-6. With the emergence of scientific history-writing in the late nineteenth century, several authors sought to ignore the glowing myths surrounding George Washington and uncover the human being within, but their biographies were still (i)_____ enough that Washington remained a marbled and remote figure. Indeed, by the 1920s Washington has become such (ii)_____ personage that inevitably someone had to go to the other extreme and try to (iii)_____ the legend.
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